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冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 57-68.doi: 10.7522/j.isnn.1000-0240.2016.0007

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

1981-2010年黑河流域中下游对流层大气比湿变化

许宝荣1, 邹松兵2, 杜得彦3, 熊吉吉4, 陆志翔2, 阮宏威2, 肖洪浪2   

  1. 1. 兰州大学 资源环境学院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室/甘肃省黑河流域生态水文与流域科学重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    3. 黄河水利委员会 黑河流域管理局 黑河水资源与生态保护研究中心, 甘肃 兰州 730030;
    4. 中国科学院 大气物理研究所, 北京 100000
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-09 修回日期:2015-12-27 出版日期:2016-02-25 发布日期:2016-05-30
  • 通讯作者: 邹松兵,E-mail:zousongbing@lzb.ac.cn. E-mail:zousongbing@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:许宝荣(1977-),女,山西襄汾人,讲师,2015年在兰州大学获博士学位,从事干旱区水文建模研究.E-mail:brxu@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(91425304;41571031;41471163);国家国际科技合作专项(2013DFG70990)资助

Variation of tropospheric specific humidity upon the middle-lower reaches of the Heihe River during 1981-2010

XU Baorong1, ZOU Songbing2, DU Deyan3, XIONG Zhe4, LU Zhixiang2, RUAN Hongwei2, XIAO Honglang2   

  1. 1. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Integrated River Basin Science of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. Research Center of Water Resources and Ecological Protection in Heihe River, Heihe River Bureau, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Lanzhou 730030, China;
    4. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2015-11-09 Revised:2015-12-27 Online:2016-02-25 Published:2016-05-30

摘要: 利用黑河流域4个探空站不同等压面的大气温度及露点差序列,分析1981-2010年区域对流层大气比湿垂直廓线的气候特征、年均比湿和季节平均比湿的年际及年代际变化,以及季节对年均比湿年代际变化趋势的贡献.研究表明,水汽主要集中在对流层中低层,比湿极大值均出现在夏季,其平均比湿仅为全国平均比湿的0.4~0.77,200hPa等压面比湿与全国平均比湿接近,季节变化微弱.除夏季700hPa等压面比湿上升外,年均比湿与季节比湿呈下降趋势,且沿廓线向上年均比湿与季节平均比湿的相对下降速率逐渐增大.典型等压面700hPa、500hPa和200hPa年均比湿和季节平均比湿先增大后减小,以1980年代中期和2002年为界经历了"干-湿-干"过程,30年来比湿极大值出现在2002年,其变化幅度随高度的增加而减弱.冬季平均比湿距平变化最为平稳,夏季比湿波动最大.区域1990年代比湿整体增加,但2000年代则相反,且比湿减小幅度是1980年代比湿增幅的10倍,1990年代的5倍.1980年代年均比湿增大主要通过秋季来贡献;1990年代的年均比湿增大通过夏秋季贡献;2000年代比湿大幅下降仍以夏季贡献最大,秋季贡献统计上最明显.

关键词: 黑河流域中下游, 对流层大气, 比湿, 气候特征, 变化速率

Abstract: Based on the time series of temperature and dew point depression from the four radiosonde stations in the Heihe River basin during 1981-2010, the climate characteristics of specific humidity along vertical profile and the annual and decadal changes of seasonal and annual specific humidity at each standard isobaric surface were studied, and the seasonal contribution to the decadal changes were analyzed. The results showed that the water vapor mainly concentrated in the lower troposphere, the maximum specific humidity appears in summer, with the average specific humidity accounting for only 0.4 to 0.77 of the average in China, and the specific humidity over 200 hPa was approximately to the average in China, with less seasonal change. Except that the summer specific humidity at the 700 hPa was rising, the annual and seasonal ones were on the decline, and its relative decreasing rate along the profile was increasing gradually. The annual and seasonal specific humidity at typical isobaric 700 hPa, 500 hPa and 200 hPa had risen first and then dropped, experiencing the "dry-wet-dry" process, taking the middle of the 1980s and 2002 as boundaries. The maximum over the period from 1981 to 2010 appeared in 2002 and the change amplitude decreased with height. The winter humidity anomaly changed very stably and specific humidity in summer fluctuates very intensely. The specific humidity in the study area all increased in the 1990s, but decreased in the 2000s. In the 2000s, there was a sharp decline of specific humidity mainly resulted from the contribution in summer but statistically the most significant contribution in autumn and it was 10 times as much as the increase in 1980s mainly contributed in autumn and 5 times as much as 1990s, mainly in summer and autumn.

Key words: middle-lower reaches of the Heihe River, tropospheric, specific humidity, climate characteristics, rate of change

中图分类号: 

  • P426.1+5