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冰川冻土 ›› 2000, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 106-112.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2000.0024

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国冰川资源及其分布特征——中国冰川目录编制完成

刘潮海, 施雅风, 王宗太, 谢自楚   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000
  • 收稿日期:2000-04-07 修回日期:2000-04-26 出版日期:2000-05-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院冰冻圈基金项目

Glacier Resources and Their Distributive Characteristics in China——A Review on Chinese Glacier Inventory

LIU Chao-hai, SHI Ya-feng, WANG Zong-tai, XIE Zi-chu   

  1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2000-04-07 Revised:2000-04-26 Online:2000-05-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 依据国际冰川编目规范完成的中国冰川目录11卷21册的统计,中国境内共发育冰川46298条,总面积59406km2,冰储量约5590km3,是中低纬度山地冰川最发育的国家.按山系和水系两种体系分别进行冰川编目,获得了中国西部及其各区域的冰川条数、面积和储量等多项指标的确切数量,发现了中国冰川及其雪线分布的若干新特征,这对于西部山区水资源的开发利用和冰雪灾害的防治等具有重要的科学意义和实用价值.

关键词: 冰川编目, 冰川分布, 雪线, 冰川监测

Abstract: According to the statistics of Chinese glacier inventory, which was finished in accordance with the guidelines of world glacier inventory and published in 11volumes with 21copes, China has 46 298 glaciers with 59406 km2 of area and 5590 km3 of ice reserve. Glacier area in China accounts for 14.5% of the global and 47.6% of Asian mountain glacier area, respectively, that is to say, China is a country with best developed mountain glaciers in the middle and low-latitude. The glacier inventory was compiled in accordance with the mountain systems and river systems. Some 14 systems are distributed from north to south in west China, including the Altay Mts., Tianshan Mts., Kunlun Mts. and Himalayas etc. Among them, the glaciers in five mountains, namely the Tianshan Mts., Karakorum Mts., Kunlun Mts., Nyainqentanglha Mts. and Himalayas, occupy 79% in area and 84% in ice reserve of the total in China, respectively. It is particularly worth noting that the huge west Kunlun Mountain has 6580 glaciers with a glacier area of 10844 km2, being the largest glaciated region in China. The glaciers in the interior region of China occupy 60% in area and 64% in ice reserve of the total in China, respectively. Among them the number of glaciers in the Tarim water system, dominated by the Tarim River and surrounded by the Tianshan Mts., Pamirs, Karakorum Mts. and Kunlun Mts., is largest, with area and ice reserve accounting for 56% and 65% of the total of the interior region, respectively. Glaciers of exterior region are located in the source area of the Yangtse River, Yellow River and the Yarlung Zangbo River etc. The glaciers in the basin of the Yarlung Zangbo River are most developed, their area and ice reserve occupy 61% and 70% of the total in the exterior region. Basins with a glacier area of more than 1000 km2 are basins of the Pumqu River, Yangtse River, Nujiang River and the upper Indus River etc. The glacier inventory data and the new knowledge about glacier and snow line elevation distribution have important scientific and practical significance to the water resource utilization and snow and ice hazard control in mountain regions in western China.

Key words: glacier inventory, glacier distribution, snow line, glacier monitoring

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6