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冰川冻土 ›› 2001, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 367-374.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2001.0066

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原全新世植被的时空分布

唐领余, 李春海   

  1. 中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所, 江苏南京, 210008
  • 收稿日期:2001-03-20 修回日期:2001-06-05 出版日期:2001-11-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(49371068)资助

Temporal-Spatial Distribution of the Holocene Vegetation in the Tibetan Plateau

TANG Ling-yu, LI Chun-hai   

  1. Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, CAS, Nanjing Jiangsu 210008, China
  • Received:2001-03-20 Revised:2001-06-05 Online:2001-11-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 根据青藏高原30个点湖泊的孢粉记录综合研究显示:在进入全新世之前(12 ka BP以前)除最东南部外,高原从东到西均发育为荒漠草原植被.全新世早期(12~9.0 ka BP)高原东南部(104°~98°E)为落叶阔叶林/针阔叶混交林,季风已进入本区,气温比前期上升2~4°C,降水波动于350~550 mm之间.中部(98°~92°E)为草甸或灌丛草甸,再向西至0°E左右为草原植被,气候寒冷干燥,平均气温比现在低4.5~5.5℃.最西部10.5~9.9 ka BP出现相当于欧洲新仙女木气候倒转事件.全新世中期(9.0~3.2 ka BP)高原由东向西古植被依次发育为针阔混交林或硬叶阔叶林(104°~98°E)→针阔混交林(9°~80°E)→灌丛草甸→草原(92°~80°E).中期气候比早晚期温暖湿润,东南部1月份气温高于现在3℃,年降水量比现今多250 mm以上.中西部气候温暖湿润,出现高湖面期,年均温高出现在5℃以上;全新世晚期(3.2 ka BP以后)由东向西古植被依次为硬叶阔叶林→针阔混交林→草甸→草原→荒漠,气温降水呈非线性下降,越向西下降幅度越大.东南部1月份气温比中期下降4~4.5℃,年降水少350 mm,东北部最冷月气温比中期下降℃左右.中西部严重干旱,湖面降低,湖水变咸.

关键词: 古气候, 全新世, 青藏高原, 孢粉记录, 水平与垂直分布

Abstract: On the basis of pollen records in the lake cores from 30 sites in the Tibetan Plateau, the temporal-spatial distribution of vegetation, climatic changes and the South Asian monsoon development in the plateau in the Holocene are studied. During the early Holocene (12~9 ka BP), mixed conifer and deciduous broad leaved forest and mixed deciduous broad leaved forest dominated the vegetation in the east of the plateau (104°~98°E). At that time the South Asian monsoon was stronger, with mean annual temperature 2~4 ℃ higher than that prior to the Holocene and annual precipitation raging from 350 to 550 mm. In the middle of the plateau (98°~92°E), meadows or shrub meadows appeared, with annual temperature 4 ~4.5 ℃ lower than that of present. Farther west about 80° E, there was a steppe vegetation landscape, which indicated a cold and dry climate.During the middle Holocene (after 9~ 3.2 ka BP), from the east to the west of the plateau, the paleo vegetations were, sequentially, mixed conifer and deciduous broad leaved forest or sclerophyllous broad leaved forest conifer (104°~ 98°E) and mixed deciduous broad leaved forest (98°~ 92°E) or shrub, meadow and steppe (92°~ 80°E). The climate was warmer and wetter than that of the early Holocene. In the southeast, the January temperature was 3 ℃ higher than that of present and the annual precipitation was 250 mm more than that of present. In the northeast, the middle and the south of the plateau, the January temperature was 5 ℃ higher than that of present; and in the west it was 4 ℃ higher than that of present. During the late Holocene (after 3.2 ka BP), from east to west, the paleo vegetations were, sequentially, sclerophyllous broad leaved forest mixed conifer, deciduous broad leaved forest, meadow, steppe and desert. Drop of temperature and precipitation was nonlinear. The January temperature and the July temperature of the southeast were 4~4.5 ℃ and 3~3.5 ℃ lower than that of the middle Holocene, respectively, and annual precipitation was 350 mm lower. In the northeast, the forest shrank back and the coldest month temperature was about 8 ℃ lower than that of the middle Holocene. Lake water descended obviously in the west, indicating a very dry climate. Above all, the timing of vegetation and climatic changes supported the result of global climatic-model experiments that suggested a strengthened monsoon system during early to middle Holocene followed by a weakened monsoon system. The South Asian monsoon became stronger from 11 ka BP to 7 ka BP and weakened gradually from 7 ka BP to the present.

Key words: paleo-vegetation, Holocene, Tibetan Plateau, pollen records, horizontal vertical distribution

中图分类号: 

  • Q914.63+2