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冰川冻土 ›› 2002, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (2): 142-148.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2002.0024

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于年平均地温的青藏高原冻土分布制图及应用

南卓铜, 李述训, 刘永智   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃兰州, 730000
  • 收稿日期:2001-09-17 修回日期:2002-01-15 出版日期:2002-04-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    国家基础研究发展规划项目(G1998040803);中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新工程项目(CACX200009)资助

Mean Annual Ground Temperature Distribution on the Tibetan Plateau:Permafrost Distribution Mapping and Further Application

NAN Zhuo-tong, LI Shu-xun, LIU Yong-zhi   

  1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2001-09-17 Revised:2002-01-15 Online:2002-04-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 年平均地温是指多年冻土年较差为零的深度处的地温,是冻土分带划分的主要指标之一.利用青藏公路沿线钻孔实测年平均地温数据,进行回归统计分析,获取年平均地温与纬度、高程的关系,并基于该结果,结合TOPO30高程数据模拟得到整个青藏高原范围上的年平均地温分布.以年平均地温0.5℃作为多年冻土与季节冻土的界限,对比分析模拟图与青藏高原冻土图,除个别区域有较明显的差异,模拟结果图较好地体现了青藏高原冻土的分布情况.利用模拟结果,根据青藏高原多年冻土分带指标及寒区工程多年冻土区划指标,对青藏高原多年冻土分布进行了分带划分,并统计各分带面积;根据简化的冻土厚度计算公式,计算了青藏高原多年冻土的厚度分布.最后,利用数值预测方法的结果,在气候年增温0.04℃的背景下,对高原未来冻土分布进行了预测.

关键词: 冻土分布, 年平均地温, 制图, 冻土厚度分布, 数值预测

Abstract: Mean Annual Ground Temperature (MAGT) is the ground temperature at the depth of a profile where the annual temperature range approximates to zero. The MAGT is one of the main indicators for frozen ground zonation. For getting the MAGT distribution features on the Tibetan Plateau, regression analysis is performed upon 76 observed data series, mainly acquired from boreholes along the Qinghai-Tibetan Highway, based on the relationship among MAGT, latitude and elevation. When multiple correlation coefficient for these data series is 0.90, the relationship is significant. Coupled with TOPO30 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data, the resulted equation is extended to the whole plateau by GIS to obtain the MAGT distribution on the plateau, a simulated map. Taking the MAGT isotherm of 0.5 ℃ as the boundary of permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, the simulated map is compared with the Map of Frozen Ground on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau[5], which have been digitized and organized in the same precision as the simulation map. It is found that the simulated map can effectively describe the frozen ground distribution features on the plateau, although there still are differences in individual areas, such as those areas in southeast, which might be caused by insufficient data, complex terrain and other factors. Three applications derived from the simulated MAGT map are then developed. One is for frozen ground zonation. The simulated MAGT map is applied respectively to determine the permafrost zonation indices and the indices for cold region engineering purpose. Every zone’s area is also calculated. One is to determine permafrost thickness distribution on the plateau, based on a simplified thickness calculation equation. A simulated permafrost thickness distribution map is produced as a result. The other is for prediction of permafrost change on the plateau in the future 50 a, with numeric simulation prediction method developed by Prof. Li Shuxun. In the prediction a temperature rising of 0.04 ℃·a-1 is assumed. The prediction shows that no large-scale degradation will take place, whereas at the edge of permafrost regions manifest degradation will occur.

Key words: permafrost distribution, MAGT, mapping, permafrost thickness distribution, numeric simulation prediction

中图分类号: 

  • P642.14