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冰川冻土 ›› 2002, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (2): 192-197.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2002.0033

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

立井冻土爆破的理论与实践

宗琦1,2, 马芹永2, 王从平3   

  1. 1. 中国科学技术大学, 安徽, 合肥, 220026;
    2. 安徽理工大学, 安徽淮南, 232001;
    3. 淮北矿业集团工程建设公司, 安徽, 淮北, 235000
  • 收稿日期:2001-06-06 修回日期:2001-09-23 出版日期:2002-04-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    煤炭高校青年教师基金项目资助

Theory and Practice of Frozen-soil Blasting in Shaft

ZONG Qi1,2, MA Qin-yong2, WANG Cong-ping3   

  1. 1. University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230026, China;
    2. University of Science and Technology, of Anhui Huainan Anhui 232001, China;
    3. Huaibei Mining Company, Huaibei Anhui 235000, China
  • Received:2001-06-06 Revised:2001-09-23 Online:2002-04-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 结合冻土爆破破坏特征,从理论上分析探讨了立井冻土掘进掏槽爆破和光面爆破机理及参数设计,再在实验室中进行模型试验研究,然后将试验结果应用于工程实践去验证和完善.结果表明:立井冻土掘进爆破以浅眼多循环为宜,眼深Lb=1.2~1.4m;直眼掏槽、周边光爆,较为合理的掏槽参数为:槽眼布置圈径D=1.0~1.2m,眼距a=500~700mm,单位耗药量q=2.2~2.8kg·m-3;较为合理的光爆参数为:周边眼距E=500~600mm,光爆层厚度W=500~700mm,炮眼密集系数m=0.8~1.2,炮眼装药集中度qL=120~160g·m-1,空气垫层或空气间隙不偶合装药结构.

关键词: 立井冻土, 掏槽爆破, 光面爆破, 模型试验

Abstract: When a vertical shaft is dug through an unstable topsoil layer, the freezing method is used. However, a situation of the whole section frozen often appears if the frozen-soil layer is too thick. Thus, the digging speed will be heavily lower, because of difficult digging, labor cost and low efficiency. Blasting frozen-soil is an effective method in this situation. In this paper, deformation mechanisms and calculating method of the parameters for cut blasting and smooth blasting of a vertical shaft in frozen-soil are analyzed. The properties and the features of frozen-soil are studied theoretically. Then, on the basis of blasting similarity principles, model tests on cut blasting and smooth blasting in frozen-soil are conducted in laboratory. According to the properties and the features of frozen-soil, blasting parameters were optimized. The results were applied to a frozen-soil blasting engineering. It is found that the drilling and blasting method of shallow holes and more cycles on vertical shaft in frozen-soil is perfect. In this case, more reasonable hole depth is 1.2~1.4 m. For parallel circular cutting and circuit smooth blasting, more reasonable cut blasting parameters are 1.0~1.2 m of diameter of arrangement circle of cut holes, 500~700 mm of hole interval, 2.2~2.8 kg·m-3 of unit consumption of charge. More reasonable smooth blasting parameters are 500~600 mm of hole interval, 500~700 mm of burden, 0.8~1.2 of density coefficient of holes, and 120~160 g·m-1 of charge in unit length hole. A decoupling charging structure with air space in radial or axial directions is used. Additionally, because frozen-soil has a large plastic deformation, low explosion velocity and high power explosive should be used in order to raise the effective utilization rate of explosion energy and reduce the damage to circuit frozen-wall. The No.2-water-resistant rock power ammonium nitrate explosive is more available with a good anti-frozen property.

Key words: shaft frozen-soil, cut blasting, smooth blasting, model test

中图分类号: 

  • P642.14