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冰川冻土 ›› 2013, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (2): 263-271.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2013.0032

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

近期小冬克玛底冰川物质平衡变化及其影响因素分析

张健1,3, 何晓波1,2, 叶柏生1, 吴锦奎1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-10 修回日期:2013-03-28 出版日期:2013-04-25 发布日期:2013-05-14
  • 作者简介:张健(1988-), 男, 贵州遵义人, 2010年毕业于西北大学, 现为中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所在读硕士研究生, 主要从事寒区水文研究. E-mail: zhangjian_317@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2010CB951401); 国家自然科学基金项目(41030527; 41071047; 41130638)资助

Recent Variation of Mass Balance of the Xiao Dongkemadi Glacier in the Tanggula Range and Its Influencing Factors

ZHANG Jian1,3, HE Xiao-bo1,2, YE Bai-sheng1, WU Jin-kui1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, LanzhouGansu 730000, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2012-12-10 Revised:2013-03-28 Online:2013-04-25 Published:2013-05-14

摘要:

冰川物质平衡是反映冰川状况最为直接、 可靠的参数.基于2008-2012年小冬克玛底冰川花杆和雪坑实测的物质平衡资料以及相关的气象资料, 获取了小冬克玛底冰川物质平衡数据并对其影响因素进行了分析.结果表明: 2009-2012年冰川末端共退缩19.7 m, 年均退缩量为4.9 m, 是1990年代中末期的2.3倍; 平衡线高度为5 720 m, 相比1990年代初的海拔5 600 m上升了120 m.与1995年相比, 冰川面积减少了0.095 km2, 末端海拔从5 380 m上升到5 420 m. 2008-2012年小冬克玛底冰川物质平衡总量为-1 584 mm w.e., 相当于冰川整体减薄1.76 m. 2009/2010年度物质平衡量为-996 mm w.e., 是小冬克玛底冰川有观测记录以来的最大负平衡值, 夏季平均气温偏高和青藏公路维修导致表面反照率急剧降低是主要原因.对影响冰川物质平衡的因素分析结果表明, 气温特别是夏季气温和净辐射是小冬克玛底冰川物质变化的主要影响因素.

关键词: 冰川物质平衡, 消融梯度, 物质平衡线, 小冬克玛底冰川

Abstract:

Glacier mass balance is the most direct and reliable parameter to reflect the status of a glacier. Based on the measured stakes/firn data from 2008 to 2012, the mass balance of the Xiao Dongkemadi Glacier was calculated. Combined with related meteorological data, the influence factors on the variation of mass balance were analyzed. The results showed that the glacier terminus retreated by 19.7 m from 2009 to 2012 with an average annual retreating ratio of 4.9 m, 2.3 times of that in the middle and late 1990s. In the same time the equilibrium line altitude was 5 720 m, 120 m higher than that in the early 1990s. Compared to that in 1995, the glacierized area shrunk 0.095 km2 and the terminus altitude rose 40 m. The mass balance was -1 584 mm w.e., equivalent to 1.76 m ice reduction, during the observing period. Particularly, in 2009/2010 the mass balance reached -996 mm w.e., the maximum negative mass balance throughout the whole observation period in the glacier. The higher summer air temperature and lower albedo caused by the pollution due to maintaining the Qinghai-Tibet Highway were the main reasons for this value. It is found that both air temperature, especially the summer air temperature, and the net radiation are the controlling factors of the mass balance.

Key words: mass balance, ablation gradient, equilibrium-line altitude, Xiao Dongkemadi Glacier

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6