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冰川冻土 ›› 2013, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (2): 345-354.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2013.0041

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

冰川物质平衡线的估算方法

崔航, 王杰   

  1. 兰州大学 西部环境教育部重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2012-10-29 修回日期:2013-02-20 出版日期:2013-04-25 发布日期:2013-05-14
  • 通讯作者: 王杰,E-mail:wangjie@lzu.edu.cn E-mail:wangjie@lzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:崔航(1987-), 男, 河南郑州人, 2011年毕业于河南大学, 现为兰州大学在读硕士研究生, 主要从事第四纪冰川与地貌研究. E-mail: cuihang071987@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41171063);冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室开放基金项目(SKLCS 2011-03);国家杰出青年科学基金项目(40925001)资助

The Methods for Estimating the Equilibrium Line Altitudes of a Glacier

CUI Hang, WANG Jie   

  1. Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2012-10-29 Revised:2013-02-20 Online:2013-04-25 Published:2013-05-14

摘要:

冰川物质平衡线高度(ELA)与气候变化, 特别是与气温和降水的变化关系密切, 是重建古气候和反映冰川积累和消融变化的重要代用指标.直接观测方法可以获得较为精准的ELA, 但不能大范围展开.因此, ELA的间接估算方法, 如赫斯法(Hess)、 积累区面积比率法(AAR)、 面积–高程平衡率法(AABR)、 末端至冰斗后壁比率法(THAR)、 终碛到最高峰高差比率法(TSAM)、 侧碛最大高度法(MELM)、 冰斗底部高程法(CF)、 冰川作用阈值法(GT)等, 得到了广泛的发展与应用.然而, 由于受到雪崩或风吹雪补给、 表碛覆盖、 冰川类型和形态等因素的影响, 单一使用某种方法易受到算法本身的限制, 误差较大, 需综合考虑各种算法的适用性和选取参数的差异, 以提高计算的精度, 同时也要考虑到后期构造抬升等的影响.

关键词: 冰川, 物质平衡, ELA, 估算方法

Abstract:

There is a very close connection between the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and the local climate, particularly solid precipitation and air temperatures. Fluctuations in the ELA therefore provide a pronounced indicator of glacier response to climate change, and help to reconstruct the former climates and to predicate the future glacier behavior. For the glaciers at present, direct observation of glacier mass balance over several years is an ideal method to obtain accurate ELA. However, for a greater range, other estimating methods have to employed, e.g., accumulation area ratio (AAR), area altitude balance ratio (AABR), toe-to-headwall altitude ratio (THAR), terminal to summit altitude method (TSAM), maximum elevation of lateral moraines (MELM), cirque-floor altitudes (CF) and glaciation threshold (GT). Due to the combined influence of avalanches and snow drift, debris cover and topographic effects (glacier morphologies and styles), the ELAs of a glacier estimated with various methods may have discrepancies of several hundred meters. It is necessary to employ multiple methods, together with an appraisal of their reliability. Furthermore, the tectonic uplift should be considered as well.

Key words: glacier, mass balance, equilibrium line altitude, estimating method

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6