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冰川冻土 ›› 2013, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (3): 513-527.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2013.0061

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 •    下一篇

新疆冰川、积雪对气候变化的响应(I):水文效应

沈永平1, 苏宏超2, 王国亚3, 毛炜峄4, 王顺德4, 韩萍2, 王宁练1, 李忠勤1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 新疆水文水资源局, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830000;
    3. 甘肃省科学院自然灾害防治研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    4. 新疆气候中心, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002;
    5. 阿克苏水文水资源勘测局, 新疆 阿克苏 830000
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-05 修回日期:2013-05-20 出版日期:2013-07-25 发布日期:2013-07-25
  • 作者简介:沈永平(1961- ), 男, 陕西西安人, 编审/研究员, 1985年在中国科学院兰州冰川冻土研究所获硕士学位, 现主要从事寒区水文与全球变化研究及科技期刊编辑. E-mail: shenyp@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    全球变化研究国家重大科学研究计划项目(2010CB951404;2010CB951402); 国家自然科学基金项目(41271083;41201062;41271035)资助

The Responses of Glaciers and Snow Cover to Climate Change in Xinjiang (I):Hydrological Effects

SHEN Yong-ping1, SU Hong-chao2, WANG Guo-ya3, MAO Wei-yi4, WANG Shun-de4, HAN Ping2, WANG Ning-lian1, LI Zhong-qin1   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    2. Xinjiang Hydrology and Water Resources Bureau, Ürümqi Xinjiang 830000, China;
    3. Geologic Hazards Prevention Institute, Gansu Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    4. Xinjiang Climate Center, Ürümqi Xinjiang 830002, China;
    5. Aksu Hydrology and Water Resources Reconnaissance Bureau, Aksu Xinjiang 830000, China
  • Received:2013-03-05 Revised:2013-05-20 Online:2013-07-25 Published:2013-07-25

摘要:

新疆是我国冰川、积雪资源最为丰富的地区, 冰川和积雪融水在水资源构成中占有重要的地位, 其对气候变化的响应使得河流水文过程发生明显的变化, 对新疆干旱区的水资源利用和管理产生重大影响.新疆高山流域产流占地表径流的80%以上, 其中冰川和积雪融水径流在总径流中的比例可达45%以上, 积雪和冰川融水是河流的主要补给来源.在新疆北部的阿尔泰山和天山北坡河流主要以融雪径流补给为主, 而在天山南坡、昆仑山、喀喇昆仑山和天山北坡的伊犁河流域的河流以冰川融水补给为主;以融雪径流为主要的河流主汛期在春季到夏初, 而冰川融水补给的河流夏季是主汛期.随着新疆气候向暖湿转变, 高山流域的水文过程对气候变暖和积雪增加产生明显的响应:以积雪为主补给的河流, 水文过程对气候变暖的响应表现为最大径流前移, 夏季径流减少明显;以冰川融水补给的河流, 径流响应表现为6-9月汛期径流量明显增大, 汛期洪水增多, 年流量增加.由于不同补给类型河流的水文过程发生变化, 其相应对下游的水资源供给和洪水安全管理产生了重大影响, 在水资源管理方面需要适应气候变化对水文过程的调整, 减缓气候变化对水资源安全的影响.

关键词: 积雪融水, 冰川融水, 气候变化, 水文过程, 新疆

Abstract:

Xinjiang is the largest area of glaciers and snow cover resources in China. Glaciers and snow melt water plays an important role in water resources. The hydrological processes of the rivers have been changed by the responses of glaciers and snow cover to climate change during last 50 years. The runoff of mountain areas occupies over 80% of the total surface runoff, and the proportion of glaciers and snow melt water is up to 45% or more. The rivers in the Altai Mountains in the northern of Xinjiang and in the north slope of the Tianshan Mountains were mainly dominated by snowmelt runoff. The rivers are located in the southern slope of Tianshan, Kunlun Mountains, Karakorum Mountains and the Ili River Basin was supplied mainly by glaciers melt water. The flood season of the river supplied by snowmelt is in the spring to early summer, and which of the supplied by glacial melt water is in summer. With the transform of the climate changes to warm and humid in Xinjiang, the hydrological processes of alpine basin had presented some significant responses to the climate warming and the snow cover increased: the maximum runoff month advanced in the rivers supplied by snow cover, and the runoff decreased obviously in summer; the runoff in June to September increased significantly in the river supplied by glacier melt, and the runoff in flood season increased, and the annual runoff increased. The changes of the hydrological process in different types of river have had a significant impact on water supply and flood safety management in the lower reaches of rivers. So it is necessary to adjust the strategies of the water resources management in order to adapt the effects of climate change on hydrological processes, and mitigate the effects of climate change on water safety.

Key words: snow meltwater, glacial meltwater, climate change, hydrological processes, Xinjiang

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6