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冰川冻土 ›› 2013, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (5): 1292-1300.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2013.0146

• 生态经济与可持续发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏铁路开通后对西藏生态足迹和生态承载力的影响

安宝晟1,2, 程国栋1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院 青藏高原研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2013-02-07 修回日期:2013-06-29 出版日期:2013-10-25 发布日期:2013-11-07
  • 作者简介:安宝晟(1976-),男,山东泰安人,1998年毕业于兰州大学,现为在职博士研究生,主要从事西藏生态环境与经济方面的研究.E-mail:anbaosheng@itpcas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    全球变化研究国家重大科学研究计划项目(2010CB951702);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)(XDB03030100)资助

The Impact of Qinghai-Tibet Railway on the Ecological Footprint and Carrying Capacity of Tibet

AN Bao-sheng1,2, CHENG Guo-dong1   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    2. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2013-02-07 Revised:2013-06-29 Online:2013-10-25 Published:2013-11-07

摘要: 青藏铁路的开通, 在加快西藏经济社会发展速度的同时, 对西藏的生态环境变化也会产生重要影响. 运用生态足迹法, 从铁路客运和货运两个方面, 计算2006-2011年青藏铁路开通带给西藏的生态足迹的变化及趋势, 探讨了青藏铁路开通对西藏生态足迹变化的影响. 铁路客运产生的生态足迹主要体现在旅游生态足迹方面, 主要包括铁路入藏游客的住宿、餐饮和购物产生的生态足迹;货运方面主要包括货物运入和运出两个方面. 结果表明: 铁路客运产生的旅游生态足迹中, 住宿比重最高, 购物次之, 餐饮最少. 总体铁路输入的旅游生态足迹仅占不考虑铁路开通时西藏总生态足迹的1%左右;而铁路货物运入的生态承载力逐年上升, 且占不考虑铁路开通时西藏总生态足迹的比重较大, 最大达到51%, 对西藏生态足迹产生重要影响;铁路开通输入的生态足迹远远小于铁路为西藏增加的生态承载力.

关键词: 青藏铁路, 西藏, 生态足迹, 生态承载力, 生态盈余

Abstract: The Qinghai-Tibet Railway operation began on July 1st, 2006, and becomes the first railway in Tibet Autonomous Region (Tibet). It brings great historical opportunities for Tibet in economic development. The ecological environment of Tibet is very vulnerable. Evaluation and assessment of ecological and environmental changes, especially those brought by the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, are critical in promoting sustainable development of Tibet. In this paper, the method of ecological footprint is applied to calculate and analyze these changes and trends brought by the Qinghai-Tibet Railway during 2006-2011, and the ecological footprint during 2006-2010, without consideration of the railway's effect. A comparison of the results shows that the Qinghai-Tibet Railway stimulates economic and social development of Tibet and, at the same time, has a great impact on the ecological environment of the region. The paper assesses the impact of the railway from the perspectives of both passenger and freight transport. Results show that the ecological footprint of passenger transport is mainly brought by tourism, specifically by tourists' accommodation, food service and shopping. Ecological footprint of freight transport is mainly produced by inbound and outbound cargo. It is found that accommodation, followed by shopping and food service, accounts for the highest percentage of the ecological footprint of tourism produced by passenger transport. The overall ecological footprint of tourism by railway accounts for only 1% of the total ecological footprint of Tibet, ignoring the railway's effect. Carrying capacity brought by freight transport is increasing year by year and accounts for a large percentage in the total ecological footprint of Tibet, 51% at the highest. Freight transport, therefore, has a great contribution to the ecological footprint of Tibet. For Tibet, ecological footprint brought by the railway is far smaller than the ecological carrying capacity increased due to the railway.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibet Railway, Tibet, ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity, ecological surplus

中图分类号: 

  • F062.2