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冰川冻土 ›› 2014, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 9-19.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2014.0002

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国现代冰川平衡线分布特征与末次冰期平衡线下降值研究

苏珍, 赵井东, 郑本兴   

  1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-07 修回日期:2013-12-05 出版日期:2014-02-25 发布日期:2014-03-18
  • 通讯作者: 赵井东,E-mail:jdzhao@lzb.ac.cn E-mail:jdzhao@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:苏珍(1938-),男,甘肃临洮人,研究员,1960年毕业于西北师范大学,现主要从事冰川变化研究
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41371028;41230743;41071010);中国科学院西部之光项目;中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向性项目(KZCX2-EW-QN304);冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室自主课题(SKLCS-ZZ-20120003);中国科学院青藏高原研究所环境变化与地表过程重点实验室开放基金项目资助

Distribution and features of the glaciers’ ELAs and the decrease of ELAs during the Last Glaciation in China

SU Zhen, ZHAO Jingdong, ZHENG Benxing   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2013-08-07 Revised:2013-12-05 Online:2014-02-25 Published:2014-03-18

摘要:

青藏高原及周边山地拥有地球上最高大且最广阔的高山高原,是除两极外最大的现代冰川作用中心,这也使得中国成为中低纬度地区现代冰川最发育的国家之一. 现代冰川平衡线分布具有纬度地带性特征,在青藏高原上还呈不对称的环状. 根据相关研究资料估算,中国末次冰期最盛期时的冰川面积约为50×104 km2,是现代的8.4倍. 基于平衡线处年降水量和夏季平均气温(6-8月)之间的相关关系重建的中国西部(105° E以西)末次冰期最盛期时的平衡线分布图与现代的相似. 在青藏高原内部与西北部,平衡线下降值在500 m以内,小的仅为200~300 m;在青藏高原东南边缘下降值约800 m,最大可达1 000~1 200 m. 天山与阿尔泰山平衡线下降值均在500 m左右. 中国东部(105° E以东)没有发育现代冰川,仅有数处中高山地,如贺兰山、太白山、长白山与台湾山地保存有确切的末次冰期冰川地形,末次冰期最盛期时的平衡线下降800~900 m,大于青藏高原、天山与阿尔泰山地区的下降值. 根据中国东部末次冰期的平衡线分布图以及相关的古气候与古环境研究资料,海拔2 000 m以下的中低山地在第四纪期间任何一次冰川作用中都不具备冰川发育所需的地势条件.

关键词: 冰川平衡线高度(ELAs), 末次冰期, 中国西部, 中国东部

Abstract:

The Qinghai-Xizang plateau and its bordering mountains is a special geographical unit in the low and middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, it has widest plateau and many peaks higher than 8 000 m a.s.l. This special geographical unit is a large center of modern glaciation, behind the polar regions (the Antarctica and the Greenland), making China to be a largest glacier country in the low and middle latitudes on our planet. The main feature of the modern equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is latitudinal zonality, increasing about 150 m per degree from 49 N to 28 N. Moreover, the ELA appears asymmetric rings on the plateau. Based on the published literatures, the glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum were estimated to be 50×104 km2, 8.4 times larger than that of modern glaciers. According to the relationship between summer (June to August) average temperature and annual precipitation at ELA, the ELAs in western China (to the west of 105° E) during the LGM have been reconstructed, and the distribution and features of ELAs were similar to that of present. In the interior and the northwest of the plateau, the decrease of ELAs was less than 500 m, commonly, 200 to 300 m, whereas, the decrease of ELAs was about 800 m on the southeastern margin of the plateau, with a maximal decrease of about 1 000 to 1 200 m. The decrease of ELAs is about 500 m in the Tianshan and Altai ranges. However, there are no glaciers in eastern China (to the east of 105° E) at present. The glacial landforms that formed during the last glacial cycle have been preserved in several mountains, such as Helan Mountains, Taibai Mountains, Changbai Mountains and high mountains in Taiwan Island. The decrease of ELAs was 800 to 900 m, with an absolute value larger than that in western China. According to the reconstructed map of ELAs during last glaciation, and considering the palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment, it is very clear that there were no glaciers developed on the mountains with peaks less than 2000 m in eastern China during Quaternary.

Key words: equilibrium-line altitude (ELA), Last Glaciation, western China, eastern China

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6