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冰川冻土 ›› 2014, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 183-191.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2014.0023

• 寒旱区水文水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

天山乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川融水径流水化学特征研究

冯芳1,2, 冯起1, 刘贤德3, 李忠勤2, 刘蔚1, 金爽2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 阿拉善荒漠生态-水文试验研究站, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室/天山冰川观测试验站, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    3. 甘肃省祁连山水源涵养林研究院, 甘肃 张掖 734000
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-06 修回日期:2013-11-29 出版日期:2014-02-25 发布日期:2014-03-18
  • 作者简介:冯芳(1984-),女,湖北荆州人,2012年在中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所获博士学位,现为在站博士后,主要从事冰川区雪冰水化学和环境化学研究. E-mail:fengfangjs2006@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金创新研究群体项目(41121001);冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室自主项目(SKLCS-ZZ-2012-01-01);国家自然科学基金项目(91025012;1141001040;41101066;41171057;41240001);中国博士后科学基金项目(2013M532094)资助

A study of hydrochemical characteristics of meltwater runoff of the Ürümqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan Mountains

FENG Fang1,2, FENG Qi1, LIU Xiande3, LI Zhongqin2, LIU Wei1, JIN Shuang2   

  1. 1. Alxa Desert Eco-Hydrology Experimental Research Station, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences / Tianshan Glaciological Station, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. Institute of Water Resources Lonservation Forests in the Qilian Mountains, Zhangye 734000, Gansu, China
  • Received:2013-08-06 Revised:2013-11-29 Online:2014-02-25 Published:2014-03-18

摘要: 2006年和2007年的整个消融期内,在天山乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川末端水文控制点逐日定时采集融水径流样品,对样品的主要可溶离子、pH、电导率EC、总溶解固体TDS和悬移质颗粒物SPM进行了分析. 结果表明:天山乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川融水径流离子类型为Ca2+-HCO3--SO42-,呈弱碱性. 融水径流中TDS变化受日径流量调节显著,表现为消融初期和末期浓度较高,消融强烈时浓度较低;SPM以细颗粒物质为主,各粒度组分含量变化幅度较大,且质量浓度SSC年内变化与TDS呈相反的变化趋势. 融水径流中离子组成主要受岩石风化作用影响,离子摩尔比值和Piper图分析表明,控制冰川径流离子组成的主要过程是碳酸盐、黄铁矿和长石类矿物风化作用.

关键词: 1号冰川, 融水径流, 离子浓度, TDS和SSC, 岩石风化

Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics of the meltwater runoff of Ürümqi Glacier No. 1 in the Tianshan Mountains. The 2-year continuous meltwater samples, taken in the ablation seasons of 2006 and 2007, were analyzed for major cations(Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, and K+)and anions(SO42-, NO3 -and Cl-), pH, electrical conductivity(EC), total dissolved solids(TDS)and suspended particulate matter(SPM). The results revealed that calcium is the dominant cation, while bicarbonate and sulphate are the dominant anions. The concentrations of cations vary as c(Ca2+)>c(Mg2+)>c(K+)>c(Na+), while the order for the anions is c(HCO3-)>c(SO42-)>c(NO3-)>c(Cl-). The glacial meltwater is slightly alkaline with the mean pH of 7.74 and 7.61 in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The TDS values in runoff samples have an inverse relationship with the diurnal discharge, while the suspended sediment concentration(SSC)shows a positive correlation with discharge. From the results of Gibbs distribution pattern, it is concluded that the major origin of ions in runoff is the weathering of rocks. Based on the ion ratios and the piper trilinear nomograph, it is found that the main processes are carbonate weathering, pyrite weathering and feldspar weathering, and Ca2+ and HCO3- are the dominant cation and anion during the carbonate weathering process.

Key words: Ürümqi Glacier No.1, meltwater runoff, ionic concentration, TDS and SSC, rock weathering

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6