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冰川冻土 ›› 2014, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 230-236.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2014.0029

• 寒旱区生物学 • 上一篇    

黄河源区高寒植被主要特征初探

林琳1,2, 金会军1, 罗栋梁1, 吕兰芝1, 何瑞霞1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冻土工程国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-16 修回日期:2013-12-19 出版日期:2014-02-25 发布日期:2014-03-18
  • 通讯作者: 金会军,E-mail:hjjin@lzb.ac.cn E-mail:hjjin@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:林琳(1986-),女,黑龙江牡丹江人,2012年在中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所获硕士学位,现主要从事寒区植物生态研究. E-mail:linlin0109@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-13);冻土工程国家重点实验室专项自主课题“江河源区冻土变化”;国家自然科学基金创新群体项目(41121061)资助

Preliminary study on major features of alpine vegetation in the Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR)

LIN Lin1,2, JIN Huijun1, LUO Dongliang1, LÜ Lanzhi1, HE Ruixia1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-08-16 Revised:2013-12-19 Online:2014-02-25 Published:2014-03-18

摘要:

位于青藏高原东北部多年冻土与季节冻土交错带的黄河源区高寒生态环境及其变化一直备受关注. 气候变暖、冻土退化条件下,为了解黄河源区不同冻土区植被状况,在源区布设了4个场地:查拉坪(CLP,源区南部连续低温多年冻土区);扎陵湖南岸(ZLH,源区中南部岛状多年冻土区);麻多乡(MDX,源区西部的不连续多年冻土区);鄂陵湖北岸(ELH,源区中北部季节冻土区). 结合植被调查和场地监测,分析了源区各冻土区植被的差异. 结果显示:总体上低温多年冻土区植被盖度、多样性指数高,表现为连续多年冻土区(查拉坪)>不连续多年冻土区(麻多乡)>季节冻土区(鄂陵湖北岸),其中岛状多年冻土区(扎陵湖南岸)例外,该场地平均盖度最低,多样性指数介于查拉坪和麻多乡之间,局部植被退化较严重. 均匀度指数均表现为扎陵湖南岸最高,查拉坪次之. 地上生物量调查结果显示:查拉坪>麻多乡>扎陵湖南岸>鄂陵湖北岸,且鄂陵湖北岸出现指示植被退化的植物. 尽管黄河源区高寒植被研究为理解冻土退化条件下的生态环境变化提供了一些基础数据,评估气候变化和冻土退化的生态和水文效应需要更系统的调查和监测研究.

关键词: 黄河源区, 冻土, 活动层, 植被

Abstract:

The Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR) is located in the transition zone of permafrost and seasonally frozen ground on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The changes in alpine ecosystems and interactions of frozen ground and alpine vegetation under a warming climate and degrading permafrost have been of concerns for a long time. Under such a circumstance, what are the characteristic of vegetation in different zones of frozen ground. To investigate the vegetation features in the SAYR, four monitoring sites were established: Chalaping site in the continuous permafrost zone in the southern SAYR; Zalinghu site in the southern bank of the Zhaling (Gyaring) Lake in the patchy permafrost zone in the south-central SAYR; Maduo Xiang (Village) site in discontinuous permafrost zone in the western SAYR, and Elinghu site in the northern bank of the Eling (Ngöring) Lake in zone of seasonally frozen ground in the north-central SAYR. In combination with the surveys on plant ecology and monitoring for the hydrothermal processes around these sites, the variations in different types of frozen ground were analyzed. Preliminary results demonstrated that vegetation coverage and the values of diversity indices were higher in cold (<-1 ℃) permafrost regions: Chalaping>Maduo Xiang (Village)>Elinghu, whereas the southern bank of the Zaling (Gyaring) lake in patchy permafrost zone had the lowest vegetation coverage and its values of diversity indices were between Chalaping and Maduo Xiang, manifesting a serious plant degradation. As for the evenness indices, the Zhalinghu had the highest value followed by Chalaping. The aboveground biomass investigation declined in the order of Chalaping>Maduo Xiang (Village)>Zalinghu>Elinghu, and some species appeared in the northern bank of the Eling (Ngöring) Lake indicating the vegetation degradation. This study on alpine vegetation in the SAYR provides some basic features for understanding the ecological changes under degrading permafrost conditions. However, more systematic investigations and monitoring need to be carried out to better evaluate the ecological and hydrological impacts of climate change and permafrost degradation.

Key words: Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR), frozen ground, active layer, vegetation

中图分类号: 

  • Q948.1