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冰川冻土 ›› 2014, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (5): 1079-1091.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2014.0130

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

祁连山地区大气水循环研究(I):空中水汽输送年际变化分析

张良1,2,3, 张强1,2,3, 冯建英1,2, 白虎志1,2, 赵建华1,2, 徐晓华4   

  1. 1. 中国气象局 兰州干旱气象研究所/甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室/中国气象局 干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730020;
    2. 甘肃省气象局, 甘肃 兰州 730020;
    3. 兰州大学 大气科学学院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    4. 武汉大学 测绘学院, 湖北 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2014-02-19 修回日期:2014-07-07 出版日期:2014-10-25 发布日期:2014-11-19
  • 作者简介:张良(1980-), 男, 陕西渭南人, 2006年在兰州大学获硕士学位, 现主要从事陆面过程、水资源和干旱监测研究. E-mail:lzhangmet@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41375019;41374036);中国气象局“气象关键技术集成与应用”项目(CAMGJ2012M51)资助

A study of atmospheric water cycle over the Qilian Mountains (Ⅰ): Variation of annual water vapor transport

ZHANG Liang1,2,3, ZHANG Qiang1,2,3, FENG Jianying1,2, BAI Huzhi1,2, ZHAO Jianhua1,2, XU Xiaohua4   

  1. 1. Institute of Arid Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration/Key Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Disaster Reduction of Gansu Province/Key Laboratory of Arid Climate Change and Disaster Reduction of China Meteorological Administration, Lanzhou 730020, China;
    2. Gansu Provincial Bureau of Meteorology, Lanzhou 730020, China;
    3. College of Atmospheric Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    4. School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • Received:2014-02-19 Revised:2014-07-07 Online:2014-10-25 Published:2014-11-19

摘要: 通过与探空站资料比较, 在分析NCEP I、NCEP II和ECMWF再分析资料整层相对湿度变化趋势和显著性水平的基础上, 应用NCEP I再分析资料和1960-2010年气象台站观测资料, 研究了祁连山地区过去51 a来空中水汽输送变化特征, 分析了水汽输送发生变化的原因, 并探讨了该地区夏季降水与东亚季风、南亚季风、南海季风、西风带和副热带高压等季风指数之间的关系. 结果表明: 祁连山地区的空中整层水汽含量在1960年代下降趋势明显, 之后近40多年基本保持稳定, 总体表现为下降趋势. 水汽净收支整体表现为明显的下降趋势, 说明过境水汽留在祁连山地区的数量在减少. 其中, 经向水汽整体表现为北风输送, 为“+”值, 对水汽净收支的贡献为“正”, 呈下降趋势; 纬向水汽整体表现为西风输送, 为“-”值, 说明对水汽净收支的贡献为“负”, 表现出的下降趋势说明纬向流失的水汽在减少. 进一步分析显示, 祁连山地区水汽净收支减少的直接原因是由风速减小导致流入本区域的水汽输送量减少引起的. 地表到300 hPa平均风速显示, 纬向风速率1990年代比1960年代减小了13.2%, 经向风速率1990年代比1960年代减小了10.5%. 夏季降水量与各季风指数的相关性表明, 祁连山西部、中部和东部降水均未与各季风指数有较好的相关关系, 该地区特殊的地形作用和环流条件及该研究关注的季节和时间尺度是产生这一结论的主要原因.

关键词: 祁连山, 水汽输送, 可降水量, 水汽净收支, 季风

Abstract: In this paper, reanalysis data (NCEP Ⅰ, NCEP Ⅱ and ECMWF) were comparing with radiosonde data. NCEP Ⅰ reanalysis data, together with observational meteorological data, were used to study the characteristics of water vapor transport over the Qilian Mountains for the period of 1960-2010. The reason of water vapor transport changing was analyzed. The relationships between summer precipitation and the East Asian Monsoon, the South Asian Monsoon, South China Sea Monsoon, zonal wind and subtropical anticyclone were also investigated. The results show that the precipitable water showed an obvious downward trend in the 1960s, and then has basically remained stable from the 1970s to present. As a whole, it is a decline trend. The remained water vapor has decreased and the net water balance has obviously gone down. Hereinto, the whole meridional water vapor transport, i.e., north wind transport, has appeared positive value, resulting in positive contribution to net moisture budget. The whole zonal water vapor transport, i.e., westerly transport, has appeared negative value, resulting in negative contribution to net moisture budget. Moreover, wind speed decreasing has resulted directly in water vapor transport decreasing and has further decreased net moisture budget. The change in wind speed averaged from ground surface to 300 hPa height shows that zonal wind speed decreased by 13.2% in the 1990s as compared to that in the 1960s, and meridional wind speed decreased by 10.5%. The correlation coefficients between summer precipitation and summer monsoon indices show that the correlations are poor in western part, middle part and eastern part of the Qilian Mountains, which are mainly caused by the effects of special terrain, condition of circulation, researching season and time scale.

Key words: Qilian Mountains, moisture transport, precipitable water, net moisture budget, monsoon

中图分类号: 

  • P426.1