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冰川冻土 ›› 2014, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (5): 1092-1100.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2014.0131

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

祁连山地区大气水循环研究(Ⅱ):水循环过程分析

张良1,2,3, 张强1,2,3, 冯建英2,3, 白虎志2,3, 赵建华2,3, 徐晓华4   

  1. 1. 兰州大学 大气科学学院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国气象局 兰州干旱气象研究所/甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室/中国气象局 干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730020;
    3. 甘肃省气象局, 甘肃 兰州 730020;
    4. 武汉大学 测绘学院, 湖北 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2014-02-28 修回日期:2014-08-02 出版日期:2014-10-25 发布日期:2014-11-19
  • 作者简介:张良(1980-), 男, 陕西渭南人, 2006年在兰州大学获硕士学位, 现主要从事陆面过程、水资源和干旱监测研究. E-mail:lzhangmet@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41375019;41374036);中国气象局“气象关键技术集成与应用”项目(CAMGJ2012M51)资助

A study of atmospheric water cycle over the Qilian Mountains (Ⅱ): Analysis of hydrological cycle

ZHANG Liang1,2,3, ZHANG Qiang1,2,3, FENG Jianying2,3, BAI Huzhi2,3, ZHAO Jianhua2,3, XU Xiaohua4   

  1. 1. College of Atmospheric Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Institute of Arid Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration/Key Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Disaster Reduction of Gansu Province/Key Laboratory of Arid Climate Change and Disaster Reduction of China Meteorological Administration, Lanzhou 730020, China;
    3. Gansu Provincial Bureau of Meteorology, Lanzhou 730020, China;
    4. School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • Received:2014-02-28 Revised:2014-08-02 Online:2014-10-25 Published:2014-11-19

摘要: 在前文对祁连山地区水汽输送进行分析的基础上, 应用刘国纬的水文循环大气过程模型, 研究了同期祁连山地区的大气水循环变化特征. 结果表明: 祁连山地区区域总降水量在过去51 a中表现为缓慢增加的趋势, 境外输送水汽对于当地降雨的贡献呈减小趋势, 局地蒸发产生的水汽对于当地降水的贡献增加, 表现为21世纪初期由局地蒸发产生的降水量比1960年代增加33.0 mm; 水文外循环系数表现为明显的下降趋势, 表明境外输送水汽在祁连山地区水文循环中的作用降低; 与之相反, 水文内循环系数呈明显的上升趋势, 表明由蒸发产生的降水使区域水循环加强. 祁连山地区水汽滞留时间表现出明显的下降趋势, 反映出祁连山地区的水汽更新速率加快, 水汽利用效率提高. 区域温度升高是该地区蒸发量增加的主要原因之一; 区域径流量的增加是降水量增多与冰川冻土带融水共同作用的结果, 其中冰川冻土融水的作用更加明显.

关键词: 祁连山, 水循环, 年际变化, 蒸发, 径流

Abstract: On the basis of analyzing water vapor transport, in this study, Liu's atmospheric hydrological cycle model is used to explore the characteristics of hydrological cycle in the Qilian Mountains at the same period. It is found that precipitation had increased slowly from 1960 to 2010. Precipitation contributed by water vapor input had decreased and that contributed by evaporation had increased. External hydrological cycle index had gone down. Precipitation derived from local evaporation at the beginning of the 21st century had increased 33.0 mm as compared with that in the 1960s. The index of external hydrological cycle had decreased obviously with a decreasing contribution to precipitation. On the contrary, the index of internal hydrological cycle had increased with an increasing contribution to precipitation. Retention time of water vapor had decreased significantly, indicating that the update rate of water vapor had become faster and the using efficiency of water vapor had improved. One of the main reasons of rising evaporation is air temperature rising in the Qilian Mountains. Runoff increasing is caused by precipitation increasing and increasing meltwater from glaciers and frozen soils, and the latter is more distinct than the former.

Key words: Qilian Mountains, hydrological cycle, annual variation, evaporation, river runoff

中图分类号: 

  • P426.1