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冰川冻土 ›› 2014, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (6): 1376-1384.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2014.0164

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

天山中部典型流域冰川变化及对气候的响应

朱弯弯, 上官冬辉, 郭万钦, 许君利   

  1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2014-03-06 修回日期:2014-10-09 出版日期:2014-12-25 发布日期:2015-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 上官冬辉, E-mail: dhguan@lzb.ac.com E-mail:dhguan@lzb.ac.com
  • 作者简介:朱弯弯(1989-),女,北京顺义人,2011年毕业于邯郸学院,现主要从事寒旱区遥感应用研究.E-mail:zhuwanwan5407@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-GJ04); 科技部科技性基础工作专项(2013FY111400); 国家自然科学基金项目(41071047; 41130638)资助

Glaciers in some representative basins in the middle of the Tianshan Mountains: change and response to climate change

ZHU Wanwan, SHANGGUAN Donghui, GUO Wanqin, XU Junli   

  1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2014-03-06 Revised:2014-10-09 Online:2014-12-25 Published:2015-01-20

摘要:

利用2000年的Landsat5遥感数据、1970年和2009年的冰川编目数据, 对天山中段南坡开都河流域和北坡玛纳斯河流域的冰川变化进行了对比分析, 并结合地面气象站点数据分析了冰川对气候变化的响应及南北坡冰川变化的差异性. 研究表明: 1970-2009年间, 两流域冰川面积减少了494.33 km2, 占总面积的26.8% (0.8%·a-1); 冰川储量减少了32.73 km3, 占总储量的27.9% (0.8%·a-1). 其中, 2000-2009年冰川面积和冰储量年退缩率(1.3%·a-1)比1970-2000年(0.6%·a-1)大; 冰储量减少的速率略大于面积缩小的速率, 说明冰川面积缩小的同时, 其厚度在迅速减薄. 1970-2000年和2000-2009年间, 玛纳斯河流域的冰川年均面积退缩率分别为0.5%·a-1和1.4%·a-1, 开都河流域的冰川年均面积退缩率为0.9%·a-1和1.1%·a-1, 显示出玛纳斯河流域冰川在2000年后呈加速萎缩趋势. 影响研究区冰川变化的主因是气温, 而夏季升温幅度及降水的不同是造成南北坡冰川差异性变化的重要原因.

关键词: 冰川变化, 玛纳斯河流域, 开都河流域, 气温, 降水

Abstract:

Glacier change was investigated by using Landsat TM5 and glacier inventory from 1970 to 2009 in the Kaidu River Basin (KRB) in the southern slope and in the Manas River Basin (MRB) in the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains. Then, combining with records from weather stations, the differences of glaciers and glacier change between the two basins are analyzed. It is found that there were 2 522 glaciers with glacierized area of 1 356.1 km2 in the study regions in 2009. And in the period of 1970-2009, glaciers had shrunk 494.33 km2 in area, accounting for 26.8% (0.8%·a-1); ice storage had decreased 32.73 km3, accounting for 27.9% (0.8%·a-1). Shrinking ratio of ice storage was slightly greater than that of glacierized area decreasing. In addition, both the area shrinkage and the storage decrease from 2000 to 2009 (1.3%·a-1) were larger than those from 1970 to 2000 (0.6%·a-1). The area shrinking ratios from 1970 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2009 were 0.5% and 1.4% in MRB, and 0.9% and 1.1% in KRB, respectively. Thus, the glacier shrinking acceleration was greater in MRB than that in KRB from 2000 to 2009. Based on climatic records, glacier retreat was mainly controlled by air temperature rising, and the differences in precipitation and temperature variations were the key factors to glaciers retreating in MRB slower than that in KRB.

Key words: glacier change, Kaidu River Basin (KRB), Manas River Basin (MRB), air temperature, precipitation

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6