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冰川冻土 ›› 2014, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (6): 1582-1590.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2014.0189

• 寒旱区生物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

寒区灌丛与积雪关系研究进展

刘章文1,2, 陈仁升1,2, 宋耀选1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 黑河上游生态-水文试验研究站, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院 内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-09 修回日期:2014-09-11 发布日期:2015-01-20
  • 作者简介:刘章文(1985-),男,甘肃成县人,助理研究员,2014年在中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所获博士学位,现主要从事寒区生态水文方面的研究.E-mail:zwliu@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2013CBA01806); 国家自然科学基金项目(91025013; 91125011; 41222001; J1210003/J0109)资助

Advance in study of the relationship between shrub and snow cover in cold regions

LIU Zhangwen1,2, CHEN Rensheng1,2, SONG Yaoxuan1,2   

  1. 1. Qilian Alpine Ecology &Hydrology Research Station, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2014-05-09 Revised:2014-09-11 Published:2015-01-20

摘要: 在气候变化的背景下, 寒区灌丛与积雪的相互关系成为寒区水文循环研究的重要环节. 综述近几十年来寒区灌丛-积雪相互关系的国内外研究现状, 并对未来研究提出了展望. 寒区灌丛过去几十年来覆盖面积和生物量等呈现增加趋势, 灌丛的增加可截留积雪, 改变积雪重分布, 影响积雪消融过程; 积雪可增加灌丛区地温, 制约灌丛区融雪时空变化过程, 影响寒区灌丛的生理生态过程. 灌丛与积雪同为寒区自然生态系统和环境的重要组成部分, 二者相互作用使地面太阳辐射和地表水分分配过程复杂化, 从而间接地影响寒区冻土环境变化. 最后, 指出了未来研究需要重点关注的几个问题: 寒区灌丛区积雪分布的精确估计; 灌丛-积雪-冻土连续体的研究; 耦合灌丛-积雪作用的寒区水文模型的构建.

关键词: 灌丛化过程, 积雪, 气候变化, 寒区, 冻土

Abstract: With a warming climate, cold regions ecosystems undergo significant ecological change such as permafrost thawing, and shifting ecosystem boundaries including the spread of canopy-forming shrubs into tundra communities (term as shrubification) over past decades. Recent researches have documented shrub expansion around the cold regions using repeat photography, long-term ecological monitoring and dendrochronology, which could cause major modification to the diversity and functioning of ecosystems. Interactions between shrub and snow are becoming the important parts in cold region hydrological research. The findings can be synthesized as: (1) impact of shrubs on snow accumulation and ablation processes; (2) adaptation of the physiological and ecological characteristics of shrub to snow cover; (3) influences of snow-shrub combination climate systems on permafrost changes and carbon emissions in the permafrost and seasonal frozen regions. Studies indicate that changes in the density or extent of shrub cover in tundra ecosystems could modify snow distributions, nutrient inputs, carbon stores, surface albedo and associated energy fluxes, potentially creating positive feedbacks to climate change. In the winter, snow trapping can insulate soils by trapping heat, and has been proposed as a positive feedback mechanism for promoting the expansion of shrubs in cold regions. During spring, shrubs that extend above the snow alter the albedo and accelerate local snow melt. In summer, shrubs shading decreases soil temperature under canopies. In winter, snow in shrub patches is both thicker and a better thermal insulator per unit thickness than the snow outside of shrub patches. As a consequence, winter soil surface temperature is substantially higher, and a condition is formed that can promote greater winter decomposition and nutrient release, thereby providing a positive feedback that could enhance shrub growth rate. In order to project future rates of shrub expansion and snow cover change and understand the feedbacks to ecosystem and climate change processes, future research concerning interaction between shrubs and snow should: (1) estimate accurately the distribution of snow cover in the shrub areas; (2) take shrub-snow-permafrost as a continuous system; (3) develop hydrological model coupling with shrub-cover and snow cover in cold regions.

Key words: shrubification, snow cover, climate change, cold regions, permafrost

中图分类号: 

  • P933