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冰川冻土 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (1): 211-225.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2015.0024

• 寒旱区水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

用VIC模型模拟黑河上游流域水分和能量通量的时空分布

何思为1, 南卓铜1,2, 张凌1, 余文君1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冻土工程国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2014-07-23 修回日期:2014-12-12 出版日期:2015-02-25 发布日期:2015-03-23
  • 通讯作者: 南卓铜,E-mail:nztong@lzb.ac.cn. E-mail:nztong@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:何思为(1988-),男,甘肃会宁人,2013年在四川大学获硕士学位,现为美国怀俄明大学在读博士研究生,主要从事水文模型的研究.E-mail:hesiweide@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41471059; 91125006); 冻土工程国家重点实验室开放基金项目(SKLFSE201009)资助

Spatial-temporal distribution of water and energy fluxes in the upper reaches of the Heihe River simulated with VIC model

HE Siwei1, NAN Zhuotong1,2, ZHANG Ling1, YU Wenjun1   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2014-07-23 Revised:2014-12-12 Online:2015-02-25 Published:2015-03-23

摘要:

受地形起伏影响, 山区流域的水分和能量通量时空分布差异很大. 利用水文模型VIC (variable infiltration capacity)对黑河上游流域的水文和能量时空分布进行了模拟, 并通过观测对模拟结果进行了验证. 结果表明:VIC模型能够较合理地模拟研究区径流过程, 对净辐射的计算也较准确, 模拟得到的部分水分通量和能量通量(感热、潜热和土壤热通量)在趋势上较一致, 但在数量上存在偏差. 积雪过程对研究区的水文和能量循环有重要影响, VIC模型对积雪的模拟偏差较大, 导致了每年4月左右的模拟径流偏低, 也没有模拟出积雪融化导致的土壤含水量上升; 同时, 积雪模拟的不准确也明显影响到能量通量的模拟. 在研究区, 土壤水分变化受土壤冻融影响明显, VIC模型对气温较高、不发生冻融过程的7-9月土壤水分变化模拟较好, 但是在其他月份, 对积雪及表层土壤消融导致的土壤水分迅速增加和土壤冻结导致的土壤水分迅速减少两个过程的模拟比较差; VIC模型能够给出水分和能量各通量的时空分布, 较好地揭示研究流域各个通量的空间异质性及相互影响.

关键词: 水分通量, 能量通量, VIC模型, 时空分布, 山区河流, 黑河

Abstract:

Due to the influences of complex mountainous topography, the spatial-temporal characteristics of water and energy fluxes in a mountainous river basin are often dramatically changed. In this paper, a macro scale hydrologic model, the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model, was used to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of water and energy fluxes in the upper reaches of the Heihe River. The simulated results were validated with in-situ observations. It was showed that the VIC model is able to properly simulate the outlet discharge and net solar radiation, while it could only represent the changing trends of other variables, such as sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and ground heat flux. The simulated snow process differed from observations, leading to underestimation of outlet runoff, a sudden rise in soil moisture around April and a discrepancy in energy fluxes simulation. The VIC model has a good simulation of soil moisture in summer (from June to September), but bad in other months in which snow melting and soil thawing/freezing processes occur. Snow melting while top soil thawing will jointly induce a sudden rise in soil moisture, and top soil freezing will induce a fast drop in soil moisture. Overall, the VIC model is capable of simulating the spatial-temporal distribution of water and energy fluxes in mountainous basins with spaces to be improved where snow melt and soil thawing/freezing take place.

Key words: water fluxes, energy fluxes, variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model, spatial-temporal distribution, mountainous river, Heihe River

中图分类号: 

  • TV124