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冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 170-177.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2016.0019

• 寒区科学与技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

Shuttleworth-Wallace双源蒸散发模型阻力参数的确定

高冠龙1,2, 张小由1, 鱼腾飞1, 赵虹3, 邱燕4, 李玉春4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3. 浙江瑞启检测技术有限公司, 浙江 杭州 310000;
    4. 额济纳旗森林病虫害防治检疫站, 内蒙古 阿拉善盟 735400
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-09 修回日期:2016-01-16 出版日期:2016-02-25 发布日期:2016-05-30
  • 通讯作者: 张小由,E-mail:Zhangxy@lzb.ac.cn. E-mail:Zhangxy@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:高冠龙(1988-),山西晋中人,2013年在山西大学获硕士学位,现为中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所在读博士研究生,主要从事干旱区生态水文研究.E-mail:guanlong_gao@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271037);国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(41401033);博士后基金项目(2014M560819);中国科学院内陆河流域生态水文重点试验室项目(90Y290F41)资助

Calculation methods of resistances of the Shuttleworth-Wallace model

GAO Guanlong1,2, ZHANG Xiaoyou1, YU Tengfei1, ZHAO Hong3, QIU Yan4, LI Yuchun4   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Zhejiang Ruiqi Testing TECH CO., LTD, Hangzhou 310000, China;
    4. Forest Quarantine Station of Ejin Banner, Alxa League 735400, Inner Mongolia, China
  • Received:2015-11-09 Revised:2016-01-16 Online:2016-02-25 Published:2016-05-30

摘要: 蒸散发是水循环和能量平衡过程中的重要组成部分.然而,蒸散发的连续测定需要耗费大量的时间,而通过数学模拟可以很好地解决这一问题.在目前已有的众多蒸散发模型中,Shuttleworth-Wallace双源模型考虑了来自冠层和土壤之间的能量交换,适用于计算随季节变化的复杂的植被类型,近年来得到广泛应用.针对近年来在蒸散发模拟过程中得到广泛应用的Shuttleworth-Wallace双源模型,详细介绍了其模型结构及阻力参数,并对各阻力参数的计算方法进行了归纳总结,从模型结构、参数数量以及参数获取难易程度等方面进行了对比分析.结果表明:(1)对于冠层气孔阻力,基于短波辐射、饱和水汽压差和叶面积指数的计算公式更适用于计算连续的较长时间段内的冠层气孔阻力;(2)对于土壤表面阻力,应重点考虑实际土壤含水量和饱和土壤含水量的测定深度;(3)对于冠层边界层阻力,在应用时可依据是否需要考虑自然对流和人工对流而选择对应的计算公式;(4)对于空气动力学阻力,传统的计算方法中参数较易获取,因而适用性高.

关键词: 蒸散发, 双源模型, 阻力参数

Abstract: Evapotranspiration (ET) is the key component of water cycles and energy balance. However, ET measurement is time-consuming, of which the long series of data is not easily obtained, and thus mathematical modeling ET has been developed as a solution. Among the many models that have been developed and validated for ET estimation, Shuttleworth-Wallace model, in which the interactions between fluxes from the soil and canopy are taken into account, is physically sound, rigorous and suitable for estimating ET from complicated or seasonally variable vegetation covers, which has been widely used in modelling evapotranspiration. In this paper, the structure and the resistance parameters of the model are introduced, all calculation methods of each resistance are summarized, and the structure, amount of parameters and complexity of different formulas are analyzed. The results show: (1) the formula that based on the shortwave radiation, saturated vapor pressure deficit and the leaf area index is suitable for calculating the canopy stomatal resistance during a long period of time; (2) the depths for measuring the actual and saturated soil water content should be considered more for determination of the soil surface resistance; (3) the appropriate formula should be chosen on the basis of considering the free and forced convection or not for calculating canopy boundary-layer resistance; (4) the parameters of traditional formulas are easy to obtain and they are more applicable for calculating aerodynamic resistances.

Key words: evapotranspiration, dual-source model, resistance parameters

中图分类号: 

  • S161.4