X img

官方微信

img

群号:冰川冻土交流群

QQ群:218834310

高级检索

冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 291-304.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2016.0032

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 •    下一篇

气候变暖背景下2015年夏季新疆极端高温过程及其影响

毛炜峄1 2, 陈鹏翔2 3, 沈永平4   

  1. 1. 中国气象局 乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002;
    2. 中亚大气科学研究中心, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002;
    3. 新疆气候中心, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002;
    4. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-10 修回日期:2015-10-20 出版日期:2016-04-25 发布日期:2016-07-13
  • 作者简介:毛炜峄(1969-),河南淮阳人,正研级高工,主要从事气候诊断、预测、气候变化影响等研究.E-mail:mao6991@vip.sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金项目(IDM201502);国家自然科学基金项目(41201062;41271083)资助

Characteristics and effects of the extreme maximum air temperature in the summer of 2015 in Xinjiang under global warming

MAO Weiyi1 2, CHEN Pengxiang2 3, SHEN Yongping4   

  1. 1. Institute of Desert Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Ürümqi 830002, China;
    2. Center for Central Asian Atmosphere Science Research, ürümqi 830002, China;
    3. Xinjiang Climate Center, ürümqi 830002, China;
    4. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2015-09-10 Revised:2015-10-20 Online:2016-04-25 Published:2016-07-13

摘要: 用新疆105个气象站监测资料,分析了2015年夏季高温过程的极端特征.2015年夏季新疆区域出现高温过程,从7月上旬后期开始,南疆东南部以及东疆最早出现日最高气温≥35℃的高温天气,进入中旬后高温范围迅速向西、向北蔓延发展,下旬初期范围达最大,南北疆均出现高温天气.新疆区域该次高温过程在7月中下旬最为强盛,全疆84.8%的测站(89站)出现高温;52.4%的测站(55站)的高温持续日数位居历史第1位;全疆21.9%的测站(23站)极端最高气温位居历史第1位,极端最高气温出现在吐鲁番东坎,达到47.7℃.这次高温过程造成8站夏季温度位居同期第1位,南疆及天山山区的7月平均气温位居历史同期第1位,有54.3%的测站(57站)7月平均气温突破同期历史极值.海拔3544 m的天山山区大西沟站7月份日最高气温连续突破历史极值,22日达到20.7℃.高温过程中,新疆区域7月0℃层高度位居1991年以来同期第1位,其中,7月19-23日连续6 d位居1991年以来的第1位.天山开都河流域日0℃层高度持续33 d高于1991-2015年平均值. 7月上旬到下旬,在500 hPa高空,伊朗高压东移并控制新疆,是造成此次高温过程的直接原因.在100 hPa高空,南亚高压的形态、中心位置、强度变化与新疆此次高温过程演变关系密切.高温过程造成新疆高山区冰雪迅速消融,引发塔里木河流域出现融雪(冰)型洪水.

关键词: 极端高温过程, 0℃层高度, 融雪(冰)洪水, 环流成因, 新疆

Abstract: Meteorological datasets from 105 meteorological stations in Xinjiang were utilized to analyze the characteristics of extreme maximum air temperature in the summer of 2015. The extreme maximum air temperature more than 35℃ firstly occurred in early July in southeastern and eastern Xinjiang region, and then spread westwards and northwestwards in mid-July. In the late July, the range of extreme maximum air temperature reached up to the top, both in northern and southern Xinjiang regions. The extreme maximum air temperature mainly occurred in late July in 89 meteorological stations, accounting for 84.8% of total meteorological stations. There were 55 meteorological stations, accounting for 52.4%, had the longest durations of maximum air temperature, ranked first in the historic record. There were 23 meteorological stations, accounting for 21.9%, had the extreme maximum air temperature ranked first in the historic record. An extreme maximum air temperature, 47.7℃, took place in Turpan. This extreme maximum air temperature resulted in summer average air temperatures in eight meteorological stations ranked first in the historic record. Average air temperature in July ranked first in the historic record in southern Xinjiang region and the Tianshan Mountains, and average air temperature in July exceeded the highest records in 57 meteorological stations, accounting for 54.3%. During air temperature rising process, 0℃ level height in July reached up to the top since 1991. For example, 0℃ level over the Kaidu River basin of the Tianshan Mountains had higher than the value averaged from 1991 through 2015 for 33 days. High-pressure ridge in 500 hPa level over the Iranian Plateau moved eastwards was the direct cause of extreme maximum temperature occurred in Xinjiang in July. The form, center location and intensity of the high pressure at 100 hPa level height in Southern Asia also reflected the evolution of high air temperature in summer of 2015 in Xinjiang. The high air temperature resulted in quick melting of snow and glaciers, causing snow and ice melt flood in the Tarim River basin in 2015.

Key words: extreme high temperature, 0℃ level height, snow and ice melt flood, circulation factors, Xinjiang

中图分类号: 

  • TU528