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冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 323-334.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2016.0035

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于能量平衡对额尔齐斯河流域融雪过程的研究

高黎明1 2 3, 张耀南1 2, 沈永平1, 张乐乐1 3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 甘肃省资源环境科学数据工程技术研究中心, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-02 修回日期:2016-01-20 出版日期:2016-04-25 发布日期:2016-07-13
  • 通讯作者: 张耀南,E-mail:yaonan@lzb.ac.cn E-mail:yaonan@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:高黎明(1986-),女,甘肃兰州人,2012年毕业于兰州大学,现为中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所在读博士研究生,主要从事水文模型方面的研究.E-mail:gaolm@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(91125005/D011004;41271083;41201062);国家基础科学人才培养基金项目 (J0930003/J0109);冻土工程国家重点实验室开放基金项目(SKLFSE201412)资助

Analysis of water and heat transfer in snow layer during snowmelt period in Irtysh River Basin based on energy balance theory

GAO Liming1 2 3, ZHANG Yaonan1 2, SHEN Yongping1, ZHANG Lele1 3   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineer Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Gansu Data Engineering and Technology Research Center for Resources and Environment, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2015-12-02 Revised:2016-01-20 Online:2016-04-25 Published:2016-07-13

摘要: 为定量描述额尔齐斯河流域积雪的消融过程,建立了利用基于能量平衡的积雪模型,对流域内库威积雪站2014年1月4日-3月28日积雪的积累和消融过程进行了模拟.结果表明:模型能够很好的模拟出融雪期净辐射能量的变化过程,对雪水当量的模拟结果也非常好,雪水当量的观测值和模拟值之间的Nash系数达到了0.989.在积雪的积累期,雪表的净辐射、感热、潜热通量的绝对值以及地表热通量明显低于积雪的消融期.在积累期,感热和潜热通量以及土壤热通量受到雪层厚度的影响.当雪水当量小于10 mm时,感热和潜热通量的绝对值偏高,土壤热通量的波动性也偏大.在积累期积雪的物质损失全部为升华损失,升华量为2.74 mm;在消融期,积雪的融化量为66.26 mm,升华量为2.04 mm.净辐射对积雪物质损失的贡献达到了83.1%,湍流通量对积雪物质损失的贡献达到16.9%.由于在融化期土壤热通量为正值,因此土壤热通量对融雪没有贡献.

关键词: 积雪模型, 能量平衡, 水量平衡, 额尔齐斯河

Abstract: In order to quantitatively describe the melting process of snow cover in Irtysh River Basin, a single layer energy and water balance model was constructed for modeling the snow accumulation and ablation processes during January 4 and March 28, 2014 in Kuwei station of the basin. The results showed that the model can well simulate the changing process of the net radiation, and the simulation results of snow water equivalent was also very good, the Nash coefficient between the observed snow water equivalent and simulated values had reached 0.989. The net radiation, sensible heat, absolute value of latent heat flux and the surface heat flux in the snow accumulation period were significantly lower than accumulation period. In the accumulation period, the sensible heat and latent heat flux and soil heat flux is affected by the thickness of the snow, when the snow water equivalent was less than 10 mm, sensible and the absolute value latent heat fluxes is higher, and the volatility of the soil heat flux was larger. In the accumulation period, the material loss of snow cover was all sublimation loss, and the sublimation amount was 2.74 mm. During the ablation period, the amount of snow melting was 66.26 mm, and the sublimation amount was 2.04 mm. The contribution of net radiation to snow material loss reached 83.1%, the contribution of the turbulent flux was 16.9%. Because the soil heat flux was positive during the melting period, the contribution of soil heat flux on snowmelt was zero.

Key words: snow melting model, energy balance, mass balance, Irtysh River

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6