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冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 480-487.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2016.0054

• 寒旱区水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

2015年夏季南疆地区高温冰雪洪水特征

商莉1, 黄玉英2, 毛炜峄3   

  1. 1. 石河子水文水资源勘测局, 新疆 石河子 832000;
    2. 新疆水文局, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830000;
    3. 新疆气候中心, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-05 修回日期:2016-02-20 出版日期:2016-04-25 发布日期:2016-07-13
  • 通讯作者: 黄玉英,E-mail:1059962225@qq.com E-mail:1059962225@qq.com
  • 作者简介:商莉(1986-),女,山东商河人,工程师,2012年在大连工业大学获硕士学位,现主要从事水文监测工作.E-mail:544792020@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271083;41201062)资助

Features of the snow and ice meltwater flood caused by high temperature in the Southern Xinjiang Region during the summer of 2015

SHANG Li1, HUANG Yuying2, MAO Weiyi3   

  1. 1. Shihezi Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau, Shihezi 832000, Xinjiang, China;
    2. Xinjiang Hydrology Bureau, ürümqi 830000, China;
    3. Xinjiang Climate Center, ürümqi 830002, China
  • Received:2015-12-05 Revised:2016-02-20 Online:2016-04-25 Published:2016-07-13

摘要: 2015年7月中旬开始至8月初,新疆地区受东移的伊朗高压控制,新疆南疆塔里木河流域及其周边区域遭遇历史同期罕见高温天气.南疆地区和天山山区7月平均气温分别为27.9℃、17.8℃,较常年分别偏高2.3℃、2.6℃,偏高幅度均居历史同期第一位;南疆及天山山区共计42站7月平均气温突破同期历史极值,使该地区从高空到地面不同高度气温都同时升高.0℃层高度都高于雪线高度,导致南疆多条河流发生冰雪消融性洪水,造成不同程度的洪水灾害.此次由高温天气产生的多条河流冰雪消融性洪水,由于具有充足的水热因子,致使南疆多条河流超过警戒流量和保证流量.尼雅河出现有实测资料以来第2位的洪水,阿克苏库玛拉克河发生有实测资料以来第3位的洪水;发生洪水的河流范围之广、持续时间之长历史罕见,叶尔羌河、玉龙喀什河、喀拉喀什河超警戒流量持续时间在半个月以上,叶尔羌河达到25 d.通过对历年冰雪消融性洪水资料分析,洪峰流量和日流量(洪量)与高空温度有较好的相关性,由此建立冰雪消融性洪水预报模型,应用在2015年夏季洪水预报中取得明显的效果,对于今后预报此类洪水提供了有益的借鉴.

关键词: 伊朗高压, 持续高温, 0℃层高度, 雪线高度, 消融洪水, 南疆

Abstract: Begun in mid-July through early August of 2015, Xinjiang was controlled by the eastward shift of the Iran high pressure and the Tarim River basin and its surrounding areas were suffered a rare high-temperature weather, when in Southern Xinjiang Region and the Tianshan Mountains the average temperature in July reached 27.9℃ and 17.8℃, respectively, 2.3℃ and 2.6℃ higher than that in normal year. In that time, in Southern Xinjiang Region and the Tianshan Mountains there were a total of 42 stations occurred July average temperature breaking through historical extreme, from high altitude to the ground air temperature increased at the same time and the 0℃ layer height was higher than snowline altitude, leading to many rivers occurred snow and ice meltwater flood and causing different flood disasters. Owing to high temperature, the plurality of snow and ice meltwater flood with plenty of water and heat made the southern rivers exceeded the warning flow and ensure flow. For instance, the Niya River appeared the second flood in the measured record, the Kumalake River appeared the third flood in the measured record. River flood range was wide, flood duration was longest in history record, for example, in the Yarkant River, Yulong Kashi River and Karakash River the hyper alert flow time had more than half a month and in the Yarkant River reached 25 days. Analyzing the historic snow and ice meltwater flood found that between peak flow and daily flow(flood)has good correlation with high temperature, based on which snow and ice meltwater flood forecasting model can be established, which has applied to the 2015 summer flood, showing obvious good effect and useful in future forecast of such flood.

Key words: Iran high pressure, continuous high temperature, 0℃ level height, snowline altitude, snow and ice meltwater flood, Southern Xinjiang Region

中图分类号: 

  • P339