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冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 584-595.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2016.0065

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京-张家口地区冬春季积雪特征分析

肖王星1, 效存德2 1, 郭晓寅1, 马丽娟3   

  1. 1. 中国气象科学研究院 气候系统研究所, 北京 100081;
    2. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    3. 国家气候中心, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-13 修回日期:2016-04-24 出版日期:2016-06-25 发布日期:2016-09-21
  • 作者简介:肖王星(1992-),男,湖南衡阳人,2014年毕业于南京信息工程大学,现为中国气象科学研究院在读硕士研究生,主要从事积雪、海冰及气候变化的研究.E-mail:xiaowangxing1@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所科技服务网络计划“冰冻圈资源评估与可持续利用”(HHS-TSS-STS-1501)资助

Winter and spring snow cover features in Beijing-Zhangjiakou Region

XIAO Wangxing1, XIAO Cunde2 1, GUO Xiaoyan1, Ma Lijuan3   

  1. 1. Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. National Climate Center, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2016-01-13 Revised:2016-04-24 Online:2016-06-25 Published:2016-09-21

摘要: 2022年冬奥会将在北京-张家口(以下简称北-张地区)举办,揭示该地区的积雪变化特征及其在全球变暖背景下的发展趋势,对冬奥会的筹备以及当地的积雪资源的开发利用等方面都有重要意义。利用2002-2014年MODIS遥感积雪产品提取了研究区域积雪数据,结合1966-2013年台站积雪、气温和降水资料和DEM数据,分析了积雪的时空分布特征,并对冬奥会场地进行积雪资源评价。结果表明:2002-2013冬春年北张地区的整体积雪频率较小,多处于0~0.2之间,但场馆区2月的积雪频率多在0.5以上,最大值接近0.9左右,积雪的分布呈带状和点状。积雪覆盖率最大值出现在1月初,达到0.23。积雪的形成缓慢,但是消亡迅速。1966-2012冬春年冬季积雪日数的波动幅度大于春季,延庆和崇礼县的2月份积雪日数分别为4.6d和13.9d,且均呈下降状态。积雪初终日均有提前,但整体的积雪期在减少。北京和张家口整体的最大积雪深度变化平稳,在1966-1980年和2000-2012年处于高值区,波动较大,其他年份最大雪深处于低值变化平稳,延庆和崇礼县的2月份最大积雪深度分别为3.6cm和5.1cm。通过分析积雪指标与气象因子(气温、降水)的相关关系发现,在年内(年际)变化上,积雪指标与气温(降水)的关系更为密切。冬奥会场地的2月份气温在-14~2℃之间,月平均降水量仅0.2mm·d-1,积雪日数不足,预计难以形成足够深度的雪,且未来气温上升,达到0.8℃·(10a)-1,降水、积雪深度和积雪日数均呈下降趋势,可能60%~95%的赛事用雪将来自人造雪,以应对可能的积雪不足。

关键词: 冬奥会, MODIS, 积雪日数, 最大雪深, 人造雪

Abstract: Beijing and Zhangjiakou will hold the 2022 Winter Olympics.For organizing a successful Winter Olympics, it is important to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of snow cover in the past decades, especial the most recent decade, using winter and spring snow-cover data from MODIS from 2002 to 2014, DEM and meteorological data from 1966 to 2013.It is found that snow cover ratio was low, with the maximum of 0.23, and appeared at the beginning of January, averaged from 2002 through 2013.The deposition of snow was slow, but snow melting was rapid; the distribution of snow cover was patchy.The fluctuation of snow days in winter was larger than that in spring; in February the number of snow days in Yanqing (4.6 days) and Chongli (13.9 days) was declining.Meanwhile the beginning and ending dates of snow cover were earlier than that before, while the duration of snow cover was shortened.There were two periods of relatively high snow depth, 1966-1980 and 2000-2012, but with distinct annual fluctuations.The period between the above mentioned two periods was characterized with low snow depth.It is found that the correlations between snow cover and air temperature (precipitation) were higher in the seasonal and annual variations.Because of unsuitable temperature, less precipitation and inadequate snow days in the Winter Olympics Venues, there will probably be insufficient snow for the sports.And with rising in temperature and declining in precipitation, snow depth and snow days, 60%~95% of the venue's snow will have to depend on artificial snow, so as to meet the requirement of Winter Olympics Standards.

Key words: Winter Olympics, MODIS, snow cover days, maximum snow depth, artificial snow

中图分类号: 

  • P426.63+5