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冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 741-749.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2016.0083

• 寒旱区水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河源区气候变化的季节特征与区域差异研究

蓝永超1, 朱云通2, 刘根生2, 喇承芳2, 沈永平1, 石明星1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 黄河水利委员会上游水文水资源局, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-15 修回日期:2016-05-03 出版日期:2016-06-25 发布日期:2016-09-21
  • 作者简介:蓝永超(1957-),男,四川资阳人,研究员,1982年毕业于四川大学,主要从事气候变化和水文水资源等方面的研究.E-mail:lyc@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41530529);中国科学院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-13;y322G73001);国家自然科学基金重大研究计划项目(91225302)资助

Study of the seasonal characteristics and regional differences of climate change in source regions of the Yellow River

LAN Yongchao1, ZHU Yuntong2, LIU Gensheng2, LA Chengfang2, SHEN Yongping1, SHI Mingxing1   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Hydrology and Water Resource Bureau of the Upper Yellow River Basin, Yellow River Conservancy Committee, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2016-02-15 Revised:2016-05-03 Online:2016-06-25 Published:2016-09-21

摘要: 基于黄河源区有关气象台站的观测数据,对该区黄河沿水文站以上、黄河沿水文站-吉迈水文站区间、吉迈水文站-玛曲水文站区间、玛曲水文站-唐乃亥水文站区间各区域及整个黄河源区1960-2014年期间气温、降水的季节变化特征及其区域差异进行了分析。结果表明:黄河源区气温变化与全球气温变化有着较好的一致性,各区年平均气温与各季气温的年际变化均呈波动状上升态势并明显高于过去50a全球与我国气温的升幅,且各气温系列升幅差异不大;而各区年平均气温与各季气温的年代际变化的上升态势较年际变化的更为显著,但不同区域各季气温升幅差异较大。各区气温均在1996年后出现一个跃动,跃动后各气温系列均值较跃动前有较大幅度的上升。由于区域地理环境的影响,黄河源区降水量的变化比较复杂,各区各季降水量的变化具有较大的差异。近50余年来,总体上整个河源区平均降水量的年际变化呈不明显的增长态势。其中河源区的上半部分,即黄河沿以上、黄河沿-吉迈之间等海拔较高的区域年降水量增长比较显著,而源区的下半部分,即吉迈-玛曲、玛曲-唐乃亥之间的区域,年降水呈减少态势,并且对全区平均降水量与产流量贡献最大的吉迈-玛曲之间的区域,年降水量的减少非常显著。各区冬春季和夏季降水量普遍呈增长态势,秋季是河源区各季节中降水唯一减少的季节,其中吉迈-玛曲之间的区间秋季降水量的减少最为显著。各区域各季降水量的年代际变化较其年际变化差异更大,但近十余年来大部分区域各季降水普遍偏多。各区域降水系列亦有突变发生,但突变时间并不像气温系列那样一致;年降水量与夏季降水量的突变大都发生在2005年,秋季降水量突变大都发生在1986年,春季和冬季降水量突变的时间杂乱无序;突变前后系列均值有增有减,且幅度大小不等。

关键词: 黄河源区, 气温, 降水, 趋势, 突变

Abstract: Based on the observation data at the relevant stations, the seasonal variation and regional variations of temperature and precipitation in the four sub-regions in the source region of the Yellow River, that is, the area above Huangheyan hydrological station, the area between Huangheyan hydrological station and Jimai hydrological station, the area between Jimai hydrological station and Maqu hydrological station and the area between Maqu hydrological station and Tangnag hydrological station, and whole of the four sub-regions (named source region) during the period from 1960 to 2014 and their regional differences were analyzed.The result shows that the changing processes of all annual and seasonal temperatures in all sub-regions had risen, which were consistent with the global temperature changing trend, and the rising rates of the annual mean and seasonal temperatures in the four sub-regions were significantly higher than those of global and China's mean temperature.The annual difference of rising rate of mean temperature was small, and the seasonal differences of the rising rate of the temperature in sub-regions were very large.Abrupt change had occurred on temperature in all sub-regions after 1996, and all mean temperature series after abrupt change rose substantially as compared with that before abrupt change.The variation of precipitation in the source regions of the Yellow River was very complicated and the variation of seasonal precipitations had a distinct difference because of the influence of geographical environment.As a whole, the interannual variation of the mean precipitation in the source regions has presented an increasing trend indistinctively in the past more than 50 years.Thereinto, the increase of precipitation on the top half of the source regions with higher altitude, that is, in the areas above Huangheyan and between Huangheyan and Jimai, has been more significant, while the precipitation in the lower half of the regions, that is, the areas between Jimai and Maqu and between Maqu and Tangnag, had decreased and the decreasing precipitation in the area between Jimai and Maqu, in which the contribution of precipitation and runoff yield was the maximum among the whole source regions of the river, was most remarkable.The precipitation in winter, spring and summer in the sub-regions had generally increased, while precipitation in autumn had decreased.Thereinto, the decrease of precipitation in autumn in the area between Jimai and Maqu had been most remarkable.The difference of interdecadal variation of seasonal precipitations in the four sub-regions had been larger than that of interannual variation, merely the seasonal precipitation in the four sub-regions had been generally larger than the average since 2010.The time of abrupt change of annual and seasonal precipitation didn't agreed with that of temperature.The abrupt changes in annual and summer precipitations occurred mostly in 2005 and that in autumn occurred mostly in 1986, and the abrupt changes in winter and spring precipitations were rough and tumble.After and before abrupt changes, there were both increasing and decreasing of the precipitation series with different changing ranges.

Key words: source regions of the Yellow Rive, air temperature, precipitation, trend, abrupt change

中图分类号: 

  • P333.1