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冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 750-760.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2016.0084

• 寒旱区水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于互补相关理论的塔里木河流域实际蒸散发时空变化及影响因素分析

蹇东南1 4, 李修仓2 3, 陶辉1, 黄金龙1 4, 苏布达1 2 3 5   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 新疆生态与地理研究所 荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011;
    2. 南京信息工程大学 气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心/地理与遥感学院, 江苏 南京 210044;
    3. 国家气候中心, 北京 100081;
    4. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    5. Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research, Germany
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-10 修回日期:2016-05-19 出版日期:2016-06-25 发布日期:2016-09-21
  • 通讯作者: 苏布达,E-mail:subd@cma.gov.cn. E-mail:subd@cma.gov.cn
  • 作者简介:蹇东南(1992-),女,四川巴中人,中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所在读硕士研究生,主要从事气候变化与水文水资源研究.E-mail:jiandnglm@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中组部千人计划项目(Y474171);国家自然科学青年基金项目(41401056);新疆维吾尔自治区高层次引进人才项目(Y642091001)资助

Spatio-temporal variation of actual evapotranspiration and its influence factors in the Tarim River basin based on the complementary relationship approach

JIAN Dongnan1 4, LI Xiucang2 3, TAO Hui1, HUANG Jinlong1 4, SU Buda1 2 3 5   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ürümqi 830011, China;
    2. Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters/School of Remote Sensing, Najing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China;
    3. National Climate Center, Beijing 100081, China;
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    5. Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research, Germany
  • Received:2016-02-10 Revised:2016-05-19 Online:2016-06-25 Published:2016-09-21

摘要: 基于1961-2013年塔里木河流域26个气象站逐日观测资料及阿克苏河流域与和田河流域水文站逐日径流资料,采用基于互补相关理论的平流-干旱(advection-aridity,AA)模型,计算并分析塔里木河流域实际蒸散发(ETa)时空变化特征,研究ETa与下垫面供水及气象要素的关系,探讨塔里木河流域ETa变化的可能原因。结果表明:(1)ETa与潜在蒸散发(ETp)呈现良好的互补关系,AA模型能够用来估算塔里木河流域的ETa。(2)塔里木河流域多年平均ETa为252.0mm·a-1,1961-2013年呈现先增后减(以1996年为转折)、总体增加(11.1mm·(10a)-1)的趋势。ETa在1990s最高,1980s次之,随后为2000s、1960s、1970s。各季节ETa大小为:夏季> 春季> 秋季> 冬季。(3)塔里木河流域ETa在源区较高,流域中部和东南部较低;流域大部分地区ETa呈显著的增加趋势。(4)1961-2013年,流域ETa的增加主要由下垫面供水条件(径流和降水)以及实际水汽压的增加引起;1997年后ETa的减少是由径流和实际水汽压的减少所致。

关键词: 实际蒸散发, 平流-干旱模型, 时空变化, 影响因素, 塔里木河流域

Abstract: The complementary relationship between actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and potential evapotranspiration (ETp) was verified, of which ETa was estimated by water balance and ETp was calculated by Penman firstly, in the Tarim River basin (TRB) in the arid inland region of Northwest China.The advection-aridity model based on complementary relationship was calibrated by the ETa estimated by water balance and is proved that it can be applied to the TRB.The research results show that average ETa in the basin is about 252.0 mm·a-1.An overall upward trend of ETa had been significant from 1961 to 2013, with a rate of 11.1 mm ·(10a)-1.However, it has decreased since 1996.The strongest ETa occurred in summer (155.2 mm·a-1), followed by spring (58.4 mm·a-1), autumn (33.7 mm·a-1) and winter (4.8 mm·a-1).ETa had increased significantly since the 1980s till the end of the 1990s, and then it had decreased, and the ETa in the 1990s was higher than that in other decades, followed by that in the 1980s, 2000s, 1960s and 1970s.The spatial distributions of annual and seasonal ETa were mostly consistent, with generally higher ETa in the sources of TRB, while lower ETa in the lower reaches of the river.The increasing ETa was closely related to the increasing water supply (runoff in mountain edge and precipitation both), together with actual vapour pressure increase from 1961 through 2013.The decline of ETa after 1996 has been caused by decreasing both of runoff in mountain edge and actual vapour pressure.

Key words: actual evapotranspiration, advection-aridity model, spatio-temporal variation, influence factors, Tarim River basin

中图分类号: 

  • P426.2