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冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 1425-1431.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2016.0167

• 寒旱区生物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

天山托木尔峰国家级自然保护区垂直自然带景观特征分析

满苏尔·沙比提, 玉苏甫·买买提, 娜斯曼·那斯尔丁   

  1. 新疆师范大学 地理科学与旅游学院, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830054
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-18 修回日期:2016-08-20 出版日期:2016-10-25 发布日期:2017-01-22
  • 作者简介:满苏尔·沙比提(1963-),男,维吾尔族,新疆阿克苏人,教授,主要从事干旱区环境演变与灾害防控研究.E-mail:mansursa@163.com.
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(41461107)资助

Landscape characteristics of the vertical natural zones of Tianshan Tomur Nature Reserve

Mansur Sabit, Yusup Mamat, Nasima Nasirdin   

  1. School of Geographic Science and Tourism, Xinjiang Normal University, Vrümqi 830054, China
  • Received:2016-04-18 Revised:2016-08-20 Online:2016-10-25 Published:2017-01-22

摘要:

根据实地考察和相关参考资料,运用历史文献和统计分析的方法,对托木尔峰国家级自然保护区垂直自然带景观特征进行分析,结果显示:对托木尔峰自然保护区垂直自然带的形成,地形地貌因素起着主导作用,纬度起着次要作用,受地形地貌因素制约的水热条件是形成各垂直自然带景观特征的最重要的物质和能量来源,随着水热条件的垂直变化,从低山带至高山带有规律的出现暖温带荒漠带、温带荒漠草原带、山地草原带、亚高山草甸带、高山草甸带、高山垫状植被带和高山冰雪带.东西走向的天山山脉,南北向深切的冰川和流水地貌,对来自北大西洋和北冰洋的湿润气流起了显著地屏障作用,致使托木尔峰南、北坡具有不同的气候特点,南坡形成了暖温带半干旱和干旱气候.自然景观以温带荒漠、荒漠草原和草原为主,植物种类贫乏,具有耐旱特点,随着海拔高度的增加,植物的荒漠成分逐渐减少,草原和草甸成分逐渐增加,土壤的有机质含量提高,碳酸盐的淋溶作用增强.

关键词: 垂直自然带, 景观特征, 托木尔峰自然保护区

Abstract:

Based on in-situ expedition, by using historical document and statistical analysis, the natural vertical zones of Tianshan Tomur Nature Reserve were analyzed in this paper. The following conclusions can be drawn:(1) Hydrothermal conditions controlled by topographic factors are basic for the formation of natural vertical zones in the study area, followed by latitude; Hydrothermal conditions restricted by terrain factors are the most important material and energy sources for the formation of vertical belt landscape; with the vertical changes of hydrothermal conditions, various vertical belts regularly appear from low mountain to alpine zone; they are warm desert zone, temperate desert steppe zone, mountain steppe zone, subalpine meadow zone, alpine meadow zone, alpine cushion vegetation zone and alpine snow-ice zone. (2) The eastwest trending Tianshan Mountains, characterized by north-south deep excavation glacial and fluvial landforms, act as a barrier to the moist air flow from the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean, resulting in the southern and northern slopes of the Tomur Peak having different climate characteristics:warm temperate semi-arid and arid climate forming on the southern slopes. The natural landscape is dominated by temperate desert, desert steppe and grassland, the plant species are poor and had drought tolerance characteristics; along with the increasing altitude, the desert elements of the plant has gradually decreased, the composition of grassland and meadow gradually has increased, the organic matter content of soil has increased, thus the leaching of carbonate has increased.

Key words: natural vertical zones, landscape characteristics, Tianshan Tomur Nature Reserve

中图分类号: 

  • P942