img

官方微信

img

群号:冰川冻土交流群

QQ群:218834310

高级检索

冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (6): 1553-1559.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2016.0181

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆喀什地区沙尘暴天气的时空分布特征及防治措施

王荣梅1,2, 阿依仙木古丽3, 余岚3, 阿不都克日木3, 李风晶3   

  1. 1. 新疆维吾尔自治区人工影响天气办公室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002;
    2. 中国气象局 乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002;
    3. 新疆喀什地区气象局, 新疆 喀什 844000
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-09 修回日期:2016-10-12 出版日期:2016-12-25 发布日期:2017-04-06
  • 作者简介:王荣梅(1968-),女,湖北郧县人,高级工程师,2011年毕业于成都信息工程学院,主要从事气候变化研究和人工影响天气业务研究工作.E-mail:78084501@qq.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41375163;41405013)资助

Sandstorm weather in Kashgar Prefecture of Xinjiang Region: spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and control measures

WANG Rongmei1,2, Ayxamgvl3, YU Lan3, Abdukirem3, LI Fengjing3   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Modification Office, Ürümqi 830002, China;
    2. Inistitute of Desert Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Ürümqi 830002, China;
    3. Kashgar Meteorological Bureau of Xinjiang, Kashgar 84400, Xinjiang, China
  • Received:2016-06-09 Revised:2016-10-12 Online:2016-12-25 Published:2017-04-06

摘要:

以喀什地区11个气象观测站1961-2010年的沙尘暴天气资料为研究对象,采用线性倾向率、Mann-Kendall趋势统计检验方法、Surfer软件,对喀什地区沙尘暴变化趋势、空间分布和突变变化进行分析。结果表明:喀什地区沙尘暴高发区出现在偏南区域,年平均高于10d的区域自南向北排列;年际变化呈现出波动性减少趋势,减少幅度分别为:喀什市-2.3d·(10a)-1、岳普湖-2.7d·(10a)-1、英吉沙-5.0d·(10a)-1、巴楚-3.9d·(10a)-1、麦盖提-4.2d·(10a)-1、叶城-4。7d·(10a)-1、莎车-3.5d·(10a)-1、泽普-1.7d·(10a)-1、伽师-1.8d·(10a)-1、塔县-0.3d·(10a)-1,各站点沙尘暴日数年际差异较大;沙尘暴的多发年代在20世纪60和70年代,进入90年代后沙尘暴的发生明显减少;喀什地区沙尘暴一年中主要出现在春季和夏季(3-8月),秋季和冬季较少;沙尘暴高发期在4-7月,占总日数的79.2%;全年中出现沙尘暴最少的月份是11月、12月、1月,只占总日数的2.54%。20世纪80年代喀什地区沙尘暴普遍出现突变性减少。为了减轻沙尘暴的危害首先要加强环境的保护,控制人口增长,减少环境压力,此外还应增加地表植被覆盖,加强水土资源管理,建立和完善沙尘天气的动态监测、预警系统,做好防灾减灾的科学研究工作。

关键词: 喀什地区, 沙尘暴, 时空分布, 突变, 防治措施

Abstract:

In this paper, based on the sandstorm data from 11 weather observation stations in Kashgar Prefecture from 1961 through 2010, using statistical method, method of Menn-Kendell trend test and Surfer Software, the spatial and temporal distribution, change trend and abrupt change of sandstorm in Kashgar Prefecture were analyzed. The result shows that there is a high incidence area (14.5 days per year) in Yecheng County in the south of the prefecture. The annual sandstorm days seem in decreasing. The decreasing rate is 2.3 d·(10a)-1 in Kashgar urban area, 2.7 d·(10a)-1 in Yopurga County, 5.0 d·(10a)-1 in Yingjisha County, 3.9 d·(10a)-1 in Marabishi County, 4.2 d·(10a)-1 in Makit County, 4.7 d·(10a)-1 in Yecheng County, 3.5 d·(10a)-1 in Yarkant County, 1.7 d·(10a)-1 in Poskam County, 1.8 d·(10a)-1 in Payzawat County and 0.3 d·(10a)-1 in Taxkargan County. The sandstorm days have large difference from year to year. The sandstorm had taken place more frequently in the 1960s and the 1970s, but had decreased in the 1990s. Sandstorm days mainly appear in spring and summer and appear less in fall and winter. Most sandstorm appear within the time from April to July, accounting for 79.2% of the total days. In November, December and January the sandstorm less occur, when only 2.54% of the annual sandstorm days present. In the 1980s, sandstorm in the prefecture had abruptly decreased. In order to reduce the harm of sandstorm, it is necessary to strengthen environmental protection, to control population growth, to reduce environmental pressure and to increase surface vegetation cover, to strengthen management of water and soil resources, to establish and improve the dynamic monitoring and early warning systems, to better study the preventing and reducing natural disasters.

Key words: Kashgar Prefecture, sandstorm, spatial and temporal distribution, abrupt change, control measures

中图分类号: 

  • P425.5+5