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冰川冻土 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 130-139.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2017.0016

• 寒旱区水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

季节性放牧对黄河源区高寒草甸植被耗水量及水分利用效率的影响

贺慧丹1,2, 杨永胜1,3, 祝景彬1,2, 李红琴1,3, 未亚西1,2, 李英年1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 西北高原生物研究所, 青海 西宁 810001;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3. 中国科学院 高原生物适应与进化重点实验室, 青海 西宁 810001
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-02 修回日期:2016-12-02 出版日期:2017-02-25 发布日期:2017-06-03
  • 通讯作者: 李英年,E-mail:ynli@nwipb.cas.cn. E-mail:ynli@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 作者简介:贺慧丹(1991-),女,山东菏泽人,2014年毕业于菏泽学院,现为中国科学院西北高原生物研究所在读博士研究生,从事全球变化生态学研究.E-mail:hhdan712@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0501802);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDB03030502);青海省自然科学基金项目(2016-ZJ-943Q)资助

Effects of seasonal grazing on vegetation water consumption and water utilization efficiency in alpine meadow of the source regions of the Yellow River

HE Huidan1,2, YANG Yongsheng1,3, ZHU Jingbin1,2, LI Hongqin1,3, WEI Yaxi1,2, LI Yingnian1,3   

  1. 1. Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China
  • Received:2016-08-02 Revised:2016-12-02 Online:2017-02-25 Published:2017-06-03

摘要: 研究季节性放牧对植被耗水量、水分利用效率的影响,是探索如何提高高寒草甸水源涵养能力的重要内容之一。以青藏高原三江源高寒草甸季节性放牧样地与自然放牧样地为研究对象,分析了季节性放牧和自然放牧条件下高寒草甸植被耗水量、水分盈亏量、水分利用效率(WUE)的动态变化及其与环境因素的关系。结果表明:在植被生长季(5-9月),季节性放牧样地和自然放牧样地植被耗水量在5月开始增加, 7月达最高,分别为160.94 mm和145.96 mm,季节性放牧样地植被总耗水量(395.52 mm)比自然放牧样地(348.14 mm)高13.61%。生长季平均来看,季节性放牧样地和自然放牧样地5-9月水分正盈余,分别为13.58 mm和70.96 mm,但在植物生长旺季(8月)略有亏缺。季节性放牧样地和自然放牧样地植被耗水量均与降水量呈弱的正相关关系。季节性放牧样地植被地上净初级生产量(ANPP)、地下净初级生产量(BNPP)和总的净初级生产量(NPP)比自然放牧样地分别高32.54 g·m-2、5.96 g·m-2、38.50 g·m-2,季节性放牧样地ANPP的水分利用效率(WUE)比自然放牧样地高53.85%,而BNPP、NPP的WUE比自然放牧样地分别低13.06%和9.97%。这表明,季节性放牧可提高植被生产量和耗水量,但对高寒草甸WUE的影响因放牧方式不同导致地上、地下生物量分配格局不同而有所差异。

关键词: 高寒草甸, 季节性放牧, 植被耗水量, 水分盈亏, 水分利用效率

Abstract: Research of seasonal grazing impact on vegetation water consumption and water utilization efficiency is one of the important contents of how to improve the capacity of water conservation. Taking the alpine meadow under the condition of seasonal grazing and natural grazing in Maqin, Qinghai Province as the research object, the dynamic changes of vegetation water consumption, water surplus and deficit, vegetation productivity and water utilization efficiency and their relations with environmental factors were analyzed. The results show that in vegetation growing season (from May to September), vegetation water consumption first increase in May and then drop in the seasonal grazing plots and natural grazing plots. The maximum water consumption is in July, up to 160.94 mm, and 145.96 mm, respectively. The total vegetation water consumption of seasonal grazing plots (395.52 mm), 13.61% more than that of natural grazing plots (348.14 mm). On average, from May to September, water surplus amount of seasonal grazing plots and natural grazing plots is 13.58 mm and 70.96 mm, respectively. But they all have a slight deficit in August. The vegetation water consumptions of seasonal grazing plots and natural grazing plots are all weak positively correlated with precipitation, and have nothing to do with soil moisture storage. Seasonal grazing can increase the amount of vegetation production. The aboveground and belowground net primary productions and the total net primary production are 32.54 g·m-2, 5.96 g·m-2, and 38.50 g·m-2, respectively, larger than those in natural grazing plots. The water utilization efficiency of aboveground net primary production in seasonal grazing plots is higher than that in natural grazing plots. Besides, belowground net primary production and total net primary production in seasonal grazing plots are lower than those in natural grazing plots by 13.06% and 9.97%, respectively, showing that seasonal grazing can improve the vegetation production and water consumption, but the impact on water utilization efficiency depends on a lot of indexes.

Key words: alpine meadow, seasonal grazing, vegetation water consumption, water surplus and deficit, water utilization efficiency

中图分类号: 

  • S812