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冰川冻土 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (2): 375-383.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2017.0043

• 寒旱区水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

构建考虑煤矿采空区特殊下垫面的水文模型并在山西省小流域应用

文磊1, 刘昌军2, 庾从蓉1, 周剑3, 张顺福2   

  1. 1. 河海大学 水文水资源学院, 江苏 南京 210098;
    2. 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038;
    3. 中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-06 修回日期:2017-03-05 出版日期:2017-04-25 发布日期:2017-07-08
  • 通讯作者: 庾从蓉,E-mail:cryu@hhu.edu.cn E-mail:cryu@hhu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:文磊(1992-),男,贵州遵义人,2014年在河海大学获学士学位,现为河海大学在读硕士研究生,从事水文水资源研究.E-mail:wenlei1225@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    山西省煤矿采空区特殊下垫面的下渗机制研究及采空区产汇流成果应用项目(JZ0203A422015);中央高校科研基金项目(B14020167);基于地貌水文响应单元的时空变元混合产流模型研究与示范应用(SHZH-IWHR-73)资助

Development of hydrological model considering the coal mined-out area special underlying surface and its application in small basins of Shanxi Province

WEN Lei1, LIU Changjun2, YU Congrong1, ZHOU Jian3, ZHANG Shunfu2   

  1. 1. Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China;
    2. China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China;
    3. Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2017-01-06 Revised:2017-03-05 Online:2017-04-25 Published:2017-07-08

摘要: 随着中国经济的快速发展,能源需求的增加,作为中国最主要的煤矿开采省份,山西省的煤矿开采量也一直在增加。但长期以来不合理和不科学的煤层开采,导致全省许多地区出现了煤矿采空区和伴生的地表裂隙。同时山西省内许多流域观测资料显示河道径流明显减少,水库存储量下降。认识煤矿开采,这一重要人类活动对水文过程影响,并在此基础上发展考虑煤矿采空区特殊下垫面的水文模型意义重大。收集山西省几个典型小流域的煤炭开采、遥感、水文资料,经过调查和分析发现煤炭采空区引起的裂隙和塌陷在山坡上会增加地表优先流,在河道上会导致明显渗漏现象。基于以上对煤炭开采对水文过程影响的认识,发展了考虑煤矿采空区特殊下垫面的水文模型,并在山西芦庄小流域进行了模型验证与应用研究。此研究方法对认识人类活动可能引起水文过程的变化有一定的借鉴意义,发展的模型也可以推广到具有类似水文过程的地区,对由于不合理的煤炭开采受到影响的流域进行水文分析和预报。

关键词: 山西省, 煤矿开采, 水文过程, 人类活动, 水文模型

Abstract: Along with the rapid economic development of China, and the increasing energy demand, the volume of coal mining in Shanxi Province, that is the most important coal mining area of China, is growing rapidly. Due to the longtime irrational and unscientific coal mining activity, coal mined-out area and associated surface fissure appeared in many areas of Shanxi Province. At the meantime, watershed hydrological observation data showed that the channeled runoff decreased obviously and the stored water volume in reservoirs declined as well. It is important and meaningful to develop a hydrological model considering the impact of the coal mined-out area special underlying surface, based on the knowledge of the impact of human activity as coal mining on hydrological process. This study collected the information of coal mining production, remote sensing and hydrological data in several typical small basin. After thorough investigation and analysis, it was found that the coal mined area could enhance the surface preferential flow in the overland flow through the associated fissure and collapse, as well as lead to obvious leakage in the river channels. Based on the knowledge of the impact of coal mined-out area on hydrological process, the study developed a hydrological model considering the coal-mining area special underlying surface, and carried out model verification and application research in Luzhuang basin in Shanxi Province. The approach used in this study has certain reference significance for research related to the human activity impact on hydrological process, and the developed model can be expanded to the hydrological analysis and prediction in areas with similar hydrological process which is significantly influenced by irrational coal mining activity.

Key words: Shanxi Province, coal mining, hydrological process, human activity, hydrological model

中图分类号: 

  • P334+.92