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冰川冻土 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 490-497.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2017.0055

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于文献记录的黑河流域历史时期旱涝特征分析

唐霞1,2, 张志强3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    3. 中国科学院 成都文献情报中心, 四川 成都 610041
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-22 修回日期:2017-01-20 出版日期:2017-06-25 发布日期:2017-09-09
  • 作者简介:唐霞(1985-),女,甘肃兰州人,助理研究员,2016年在中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所获博士学位,从事干旱区环境与水资源研究.E-mail:tangxia@llas.ac.cn.
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(91125007)资助

An analysis of drought and flood disasters in the Heihe River basin based on historical documents

TANG Xia1,2, ZHANG Zhiqiang3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Eco-hydrology of Inland River Basin, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. Chengdu Documentation and Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Received:2016-12-22 Revised:2017-01-20 Online:2017-06-25 Published:2017-09-09

摘要: 流域的旱涝灾害特征及其变化规律是流域水资源演变研究的重要内容。利用历史文献资料重建了西北内陆河黑河流域公元0-1949年的旱涝灾害等级序列,结合滑动平均、小波变换处理等方法,探讨了流域历史时期旱涝等级的频数特征、旱涝变化的周期特征及其与气候冷暖和人类活动之间的关系。对公元1000年以后的旱涝灾害规律进行分析,结果表明:流域存在5个旱灾高发阶段(1230-1270年、1430-1530年、1640-1760年、1860-1890年、1900-1940年),3个涝灾高发期(1650-1690年、1730-1790年、1830-1910年),并呈现出旱涝灾害频发的态势;1000-1949年期间,流域旱涝灾害存在4个准周期变化,对比发现这与太阳黑子活动等环境变化周期有紧密的联系;1580年以前,气候冷暖是影响旱涝灾害发生的主要因子,但16世纪以后,旱涝灾害交替频发,很可能是人类活动加剧了该现象。所以,定量辨析自然因素和人类活动对流域旱涝灾害的影响将是未来研究的重点方向。

关键词: 黑河流域, 旱涝灾害等级, 历史时期, 小波分析

Abstract: Study on the characteristics and variation of drought and flood is very important for studying water resource evolution in a river basin. Historical documents and the records of two cities (Zhangye and Jiuquan) about watershed flood and drought were used and integrated to rebuild a drought and flood gradation sequence of the Heihe River basin from 0 to 1949 A.D., through the methods of moving average and wavelet transform processing, to understand the frequency and cycle of drought in the past and their relationships with climate and human activities in the basin. The results showed that there were five drought phases (1230-1270, 1430-1530, 1640-1760, 1860-1890, and 1900-1940) and three flood phases (1650-1690, 1730-1790 and 1830-1910). From 1000 to 1949 A.D., there were four quasi-periodic variations of drought and flood in the basin, which were closely related with solar activity. Before 1580, climate change was the main factor of drought and flood disaster. However, after the 16th century, the frequent events of alternate drought and flood seemed to be caused by human activities. Therefore, quantitatively analyzing the effects of natural factors and human activities on drought and flood disasters in the basin should be the focus of future research.

Key words: Heihe River basin, grade of flood and drought, historical periods, wavelet analysis

中图分类号: 

  • P429