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冰川冻土 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (4): 741-747.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2017.0084

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原陆表特征与中国夏季降水的关系研究

高荣1, 韦志刚2, 钟海玲1   

  1. 1. 国家气候中心 中国气象局气候研究开放实验室, 北京 100081;
    2. 北京师范大学 地理科学学部 地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-20 修回日期:2017-05-22 出版日期:2017-08-25 发布日期:2017-11-15
  • 作者简介:高荣(1977-),男,重庆垫江人,高级工程师,2006年在中国科学院大气物理研究所获博士学位,从事青藏高原陆气相互作用、区域气候模拟和极端事件监测评估等研究.E-mail:gaor@cma.gov.cn.
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划专项(2016YFA0602104)资助

Relationship between land surface characteristics in the Tibetan Plateau and summer precipitation in China

GAO Rong1, WEI Zhigang2, ZHONG Hailing1   

  1. 1. Laboratory for Climate Studies of China Meteorological Administration, National Climate Center, Beijing 100081, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2016-12-20 Revised:2017-05-22 Online:2017-08-25 Published:2017-11-15

摘要: 利用青藏高原72个站逐日积雪、冻土观测资料,AVHRR归一化植被指数(NDVI)和全国550个站逐日降水资料,分析了青藏高原陆表特征与中国夏季降水的关系。结果表明,我国夏季降水在华北和东北南部,长江中下游和华南地区降水空间一致性较好,相邻站点间降水变化趋势近似。华南、长江中下游和淮河降水呈增加趋势,其中长江中下游每10年增加37 mm,但华北降水呈减少趋势。华南、长江中下游和华北对高原积雪、冻土和植被的变化均较为敏感,而淮河仅对高原植被变化较为敏感。利用高原积雪、冻土和植被建立了代表高原地表特征的变化序列,其对长江中下游、淮河、华北夏季降水均有较好指示意义,与夏季降水的相关系数由南到北表现为"负-正-负"的分布特征。最后,提出一种高原陆表状况影响中国夏季降水的概念模型:高原冬春积雪偏多(少)、冬季冻土偏厚(薄)、春季植被偏多(少)会使得夏季高原地区土壤湿度偏大(小),高原地表感热偏弱(强),从而使得南亚高压和西太副高偏弱(强),南海季风偏弱(强),长江流域降水偏多(少),华南和华北地区降水偏少(多)。

关键词: 青藏高原, 积雪, 冻土, 植被, 夏季降水

Abstract: In this paper, using the daily observed snow cover and frozen soil data in 72 meteorological stations in the Tibetan Plateau, AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and daily precipitation data from China's 550 meteorological stations, the relationships have been analyzed between the land surface characteristics in the Tibetan Plateau and summer precipitation in China. The results showed that the spatial consistency of summer precipitation is better in the North China and the southern region of Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and South China, with an approximation tendency among adjacent meteorological stations. Precipitation has an increasing trend in South China, the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Huaihe River basin, with an increase rate of 37 mm per 10 years in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, but a decreasing trend in North China. Precipitation change in South China, the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and North China is sensitive to the change of snow cover, frozen soil and vegetation in the Tibetan Plateau, but in Huaihe River basin it is only sensitive to the change of vegetation. The surface features in the Tibetan Plateau have been established with snow cover, frozen soil and vegetation, which has a good indication significance on the summer precipitation in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, Huaihe River basin and North China. The distribution of correlation coefficient between land surface conditions in the Tibetan Plateau and summer precipitation in China had "-~+~-" features from south to north. Finally, one conceptual model is established to describe the effect of plateau land surface conditions on summer precipitation in China. When snow cover is more (less) in winter and spring, frozen soil depth is deep (thin) in winter and vegetation is more (less) in spring, the soil humidity of plateau land in summer will be more (less) and surface sensible heat will be less (more). Thus the South Asian High and West Pacific Subtropical High will be weak (strong), so that the South China Sea monsoon will be weak (strong), resulting in more (less) rainfall over the Yangtze River basin, and less (more) rainfall in South China and North China.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, snow cover, frozen soil, vegetation, summer precipitation

中图分类号: 

  • P461+.7