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冰川冻土 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (6): 1163-1171.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2017.0129

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于卫星气候资料的1989-2015年南北极海冰面积变化分析

张雷1, 徐宾1, 师春香1, 周自江1, 任国玉2   

  1. 1. 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心, 北京 100081;
    2. 中国气象局 气候研究开放实验室/国家气候中心, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-09 修回日期:2017-11-16 出版日期:2017-12-25 发布日期:2018-04-03
  • 作者简介:张雷(1980-),男,河北沧州人,高级工程师,2014年在南京信息工程大学获博士学位,从事气候变化、海洋数据研究.E-mail:zhang_lei@cma.gov.cn.
  • 基金资助:
    国家气象信息中心青年科技基金项目(NMICQJ201613);公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201506002;GYHY201206001;GYHY201206012);国家自然科学基金项目(91437220);国家气象科技创新工程攻关任务项目“气象资料质量控制及多源数据融合与再分析”资助

Analysis of sea ice area change in the Arctic and Antarctic based on the satellite climate data during 1989-2015

ZHANG Lei1, XU Bin1, SHI Chunxiang1, ZHOU Zijiang1, REN Guoyu2   

  1. 1. National Meteorological Information Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China;
    2. Laboratory for Climate Studies, China Meteorological Administration/National Climate Center, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2017-05-09 Revised:2017-11-16 Online:2017-12-25 Published:2018-04-03

摘要: 利用被动微波卫星海冰密集度气候资料,分析了1989-2015年南北极海冰面积和密集度的长期变化趋势。结果表明:研究期内,北极年平均海冰面积减少,南极海冰面积增加,变化趋势分别为-0.569×106 km2·(10a)-1和0.327×106 km2·(10a)-1,均通过了0.01水平的显著性检验,两极海冰面积变化趋势表现出明显的"非对称性"。两极总海冰面积出现了下降,变化趋势为-0.242×106 km2·(10a)-1。年海冰密集度在北极地区普遍减少,而在南极地区的变化趋势存在显著的空间差异,威德尔海、罗斯海北部海冰密集度增加,趋势超过了10%·(10a)-1,别林斯高晋海、阿蒙森海的海冰密集度出现下降。北极各月海冰面积的变化趋势存在明显的季节差异,7-10月海冰面积减少明显,其中9月减少最显著,趋势为-0.955×106 km2·(10a)-1。南北极海冰冻结和融化的时间不完全对应,北极融化与冻结时间基本平衡,南极海冰冻结时间明显长于融化时间。南极年内海冰面积的变化幅度大于北极,呈现显著的季节性特征。北极极小海冰面积的变化趋势最显著,达到了-0.636×106 km2·(10a)-1。南极极大海冰面积出现的时间后移明显,趋势为0.733候·(10a)-1;极小海冰面积出现的时间非常稳定,没有明显的变化趋势。

关键词: 气候变化, 海冰, 北极, 南极, 卫星

Abstract: In this research, the trends of sea ice area (SIA) and concentrations in the Arctic and Antarctic from 1989 to 2015 were analyzed by using the climate data of passive microwave satellite sea ice concentrations (SIC). The results showed that the annual SIA had decreased in Arctic and increased in Antarctic. The ratios were -0.569×106 km2·(10a)-1 and 0.327×106 km2·(10a)-1, respectively, being significant at the 0.01 confidence level. The asymmetry of trends in the Arctic and Antarctic had been obvious. The total SIA had decreased, with a trend of -0.242×106 km2·(10a)-1. The trend of annual SIC had universally declined in the Arctic, but had been obviously spatial difference in the Antarctic. The SIC had increased in the north of Weddell Sea and Ross Sea with the rate more than 10%·(10a)-1, but had decreased in Bellingshausen Sea and Amundsen Sea. There was obvious seasonal difference in monthly SIA variation in the Arctic. The SIA had obviously reduced from July to October, significantly in September, reaching -0.955×106 km2·(10a)-1. The sea ice freezing time and melting time had not completely corresponded between the Arctic and Antarctic; in the Arctic melting time and freezing time had been roughly balanced, but in the Antarctic freezing time had been significantly longer than melting time. Within a year, the variation of SIA in the Antarctic had been greater than that in the Arctic, showing significant seasonal characteristics. Changing in the minimum SIA in the Arctic had been most significant, reaching -0.636×106 km2·(10a)-1. The occurrence time of the maximum SIA in the Antarctic had moved backwards obviously, with the ratio of 0.733 pentad per decade; the occurrence time of the minimum SIA in the Antarctic had been very stable without any obvious tendency.

Key words: climate change, sea ice, Arctic, Antarctic, satellite

中图分类号: 

  • P731.15