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冰川冻土 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (1): 1-11.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2019.0004

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    

1972-2016年东天山哈尔里克山地区冰川物质平衡研究

杨晓辉1,2, 赵井东1, 韩惠3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3. 兰州交通大学 测绘与地理信息学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-28 修回日期:2019-01-08 发布日期:2019-03-16
  • 通讯作者: 赵井东。E-mail:jdzhao@lzb.ac.cn E-mail:jdzhao@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:杨晓辉(1991-),女,山东滨州人,2014年在成都信息工程大学获学士学位,现为中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院在读硕士研究生,从事遥感与GIS在全球变化中的应用方面的研究.E-mail:yangxiaohui@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    科技部科技基础性工作专项项目(2013FY111400);国家自然科学基金项目(41771018;41371028);冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室开放课题(SKLCS-OP-2018-02)资助

Study on glacier mass balance in the Karlik Range, East Tianshan Mountains, 1972-2016

YANG Xiaohui1,2, ZHAO Jingdong1, HAN Hui3   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Faculty of Geomatics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2018-10-28 Revised:2019-01-08 Published:2019-03-16

摘要: 新疆哈密地区是世界上极端干旱的地区之一,依托高峻的哈尔里克山发育的现代冰川成为维系本区绿洲生存与发展的固体水库。对哈尔里克山地区冰川的监测与研究可获得本区冰川对全球气候变化的响应,也为哈密地区的水资源评估、生态建设与绿洲经济的可持续发展提供基础数据与理论支持。基于地形图、SRTM DEM和资源三号立体像对等数据,采用大地测量法对哈尔里克山地区自地形图成图以来44年间冰川物质平衡进行了研究。结果表明:1972-2016年间冰川平均表面高程下降了(9.15±0.98)m,冰川物质平衡为(-0.18±0.02)m·a-1 w.e.,冰量损失显著。其中,1972-1999年间,冰川物质平衡为(-0.04±0.01)m·a-1 w.e.,冰量损失较缓慢;1999-2016年间,冰川物质平衡增至(-0.36±0.05)m·a-1 w.e.,冰量损失加剧。此外,南北坡的冰川物质平衡空间差异性明显。1972-1999年间,北坡冰川物质平衡为(-0.05±0.01)m·a-1 w.e.,南坡冰川物质平衡为(-0.02±0.01)m·a-1 w.e.,北坡冰川物质损失略大于南坡;1999-2016年间,北坡冰川物质平衡为(-0.27±0.04)m·a-1 w.e.,南坡冰川物质平衡为(-0.45±0.05)m·a-1 w.e.,南坡冰川损失量远大于北坡。结合哈密与伊吾气象观测资料分析可知:冰川的物质平衡与气温变化呈现出很强的相关性,研究区的降水量自20世纪50年代以来呈增加趋势,但温度变化对冰川物质平衡的影响大于略微增加的降水的影响。1999年后,南坡冬夏季气温的增长幅度均超过北坡,这是南坡冰量损失加剧的主因。

关键词: 东天山, 哈尔里克山, 冰川物质平衡, DEM

Abstract: Hami Prefecture of the Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region is one of the most arid areas in the world. The glaciers developing in the Karlik Range of Hami Prefecture are an available and reliable “solid reservoir” that sustain the existence and development of the oasis nearby. The response of glaciers to global climate change could be obtained by observing and studying them. The relative information could also be used to evaluate water resources and reconstruct eco-environment, and finally to maintain the sustainable development of the oasis economy in Hami Prefecture. In this study, geodetic measurement was used to study the glacier mass balance during 1972-2016 in the Karlik Range by using the data from topographic maps, SRTM and Resource-3 satellite images. It was revealed that a continuous shrinkage of glacier has occurred during this period with a velocity about (9.15±0.98) m ice per year, i.e., (-0.18±0.02) m·a-1 w.e.. However, the glacier mass loss was about (-0.04±0.01) m·a-1 w.e. during 1972-1999, i.e., (-0.36±0.05) m·a-1 w.e. during 1999-2016. In addition, there were different glacier mass losses between northern and southern slopes. The glacier mass balance was about (-0.05±0.01) m·a-1 w.e. on the northern slopes and (-0.02±0.01) m·a-1 w.e. on the southern slopes during 1972-1999, indicating that the glacier loss on the northern slopes was slight more than that on the southern slopes during this period. However, the glacier mass balance was about (-0.27±0.04) m·a-1 w.e. on the northern slopes and (-0.45±0.05) m·a-1 w.e. on the southern slopes during 1999-2016, demonstrating that the glacier mass loss had accelerated on both slopes and the glacier mass loss on the southern slopes was much higher than that on the northern slopes. In order to analyze these differences, the meteorological data of Hami and Yiwu Meteorological Stations have been analyzed. The results demonstrate that the glacier mass balance was strongly correlated with temperature; precipitation has slightly increased form 1950s, whereas, increasing temperature has exerted greater impact on glacier mass balance. After 1999, the temperature in winter and summer had increased more on southern slopes than that on the northern slopes, therefore, it is reasonable to infer that this is main cause for significant glacier mass loss on the southern slopes since 1999.

Key words: East Tianshan Mountains, Karlik Range, glacier mass balance, digital elevation model (DEM)

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6