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冰川冻土 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 505-515.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2019.0513

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原海拔要素对温度、降水和气候型分布格局的影响

张宇欣, 李育, 朱耿睿   

  1. 兰州大学 资源环境学院 干旱区水循环与水资源研究中心, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-25 修回日期:2019-01-25 出版日期:2019-06-25 发布日期:2019-09-10
  • 通讯作者: 李育,E-mail:liyu@lzu.edu.cn. E-mail:liyu@lzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张宇欣(1996-),女,内蒙古赤峰人,2017年在内蒙古师范大学获学士学位,现为兰州大学在读硕士研究生,从事气候变化研究.E-mail:yxzhang2017@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41822708;41571178);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20100102);兰州大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(lzujbky-2018-k15)资助

The effects of altitude on temperature, precipitation and climatic zone in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

ZHANG Yuxin, LI Yu, ZHU Gengrui   

  1. Center for Hydrologic Cycle and Water Resources in Arid Region, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2018-06-25 Revised:2019-01-25 Online:2019-06-25 Published:2019-09-10

摘要: 青藏高原平均海拔4 000~5 000 m,由于特殊的地理条件,生态环境较为脆弱,对气候变化非常敏感,并对周围乃至全球的气候产生重要影响。使用1961-2010年青藏高原温度、降水0.5°×0.5°格点数据,以及由GTOPO30数据(分辨率为0.05°×0.05°)经过重采样生成的陆地0.5°×0.5°的数字高程模型DEM,分析了青藏高原温度、降水受海拔要素的影响,并通过青藏高原区域79个气象站的数据进行验证,进而使用柯本气候分类和中国自然地理区划两种方法对青藏高原气候进行划分,探讨青藏高原各分区海拔要素对温度、降水的影响差异以及出现差异的原因。研究表明:青藏高原及其各分区的气温垂直递减率不同,是由于地形起伏不同造成的青藏高原热源效用不同;降水与海拔的关系不同,是由于各区域受控于不同的气候系统,造成干湿度的不同,因而最大降水高度带不同。

关键词: 青藏高原, 海拔, 气候型, 温度, 降水

Abstract: With an average elevation of 4 000-5 00.m, the Tibetan Plateau has a vulnerable ecological environment and is very sensitive to climate change because of its special geographical condition. At the same time, the plateau has an critical influence on surrounding and global climate. As an important factor influencing the temperature and precipitation, altitude has been less mentioned in the previous studies, or just for a few height mountains not for the entire region. In this paper, precipitation, temperature and elevation 0.5°×0.5° DEM data have been used to study the relationship between temperature, precipitation, climatic and altitudes on the plateau. Data from 110 weather stations are used to analyzed them. Then, the Tibetan Plateau has been divided by K ppen climate classification and physical geographical regionalization, and the altitude effects on temperature, precipitation, climatic zones and their mechanisms have been discussed. One can see that the vertical lapse rates of the Tibetan Plateau and its partition are not identical, because the plateau has various terrains, leading to different utility of heat sources. There are differences of the relationships between precipitation and elevation, due to controlling by different climate systems, resulting in various humidities and different maximum precipitation zones.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, altitude, climate, temperature, precipitation

中图分类号: 

  • P461