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冰川冻土 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 1053-1066.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2019.0901

• 冰川与冰冻圈水文 • 上一篇    下一篇

气候变暖背景下极端气候对青海祁连山水文水资源的影响

戴升1, 保广裕2, 祁贵明3, 马占良1, 白文蓉1, 余迪1, 冯晓莉1, 杨延华1, 时盛博1   

  1. 1. 青海省气候中心, 青海 西宁 810001;
    2. 青海省气象服务中心, 青海 西宁 810001;
    3. 格尔木市气象局, 青海 格尔木 816099
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-21 修回日期:2019-10-17 发布日期:2020-02-24
  • 通讯作者: 祁贵明,E-mail:727618306@qq.com. E-mail:727618306@qq.com
  • 作者简介:戴升(1961-),男,青海互助人,高级工程师,2005年在成都信息工程学院获学士学位,从事气候与气候变化研究.E-mail:qhzxds@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国气象局气候变化专项(CCSF201929);青海省科技计划项目(2019-ZJ-603)资助

Impacts of extreme climatic events under the context of climate warming on hydrology and water resources in the Qinghai Qilian Mountains

DAI Sheng1, BAO Guangyu2, QI Guiming3, MA Zhanliang1, BAI Wenrong1, YU Di1, FENG Xiaoli1, YANG Yanhua1, SHI Shengbo1   

  1. 1. Qinghai Climate Center, Xining 810001, China;
    2. Qinghai Meteorological Service Center, Xining 810001, China;
    3. Golmud Meteorological Bureau, Golmud 816099, Qinghai, China
  • Received:2019-08-21 Revised:2019-10-17 Published:2020-02-24

摘要: 利用青海祁连山区极端气候要素和青海湖、哈拉湖及主要河流的水文资料,研究表明:冷夜日数(10%)呈显著减少趋势,暖夜日数(90%)呈显著增加趋势;年大风日数显著减少;年降水量21世纪初增加趋势最为显著并发生突变,降水量增加幅度中西段大于东段;≥ 5 mm、≥ 10 mm、≥ 25 mm年降水日数呈显著增加趋势,进入21世纪后更为明显,而≥ 0.1 mm年降水日数呈减少趋势;年平均大风日数与湖泊水位、河流流量变化呈负相关,大风天气的减少,可以缓解湖面和土壤因蒸发而导致的水分损失,对植被的改善可增加径流的产生,流入湖泊的流量增加;降水量与湖泊水位、河流流量呈正相关,受21世纪降水量增加的影响青海湖水位逐年上升,共上升1.67 m,达到20世纪70年代末的水位,中西部主要河流流量近几年也达到最大值,而东段流量增加不明显;祁连山区≥ 5 mm、≥ 10 mm、≥ 25 mm年平均降水量与湖泊、河流流量变化呈正相关,各量级年降水量对湖泊水位、河流流量的增加贡献显著。

关键词: 极端气候事件, 大风, 河流, 暖夜日数, 青海湖水位, 流量, 青海祁连山

Abstract: Based on the extreme climatic factors in the Qilian Mountains of Qinghai Province and the hydrological data of the Qinghai Lake, the Hara Lake and some main rivers, the study shows that strong wind (gale) days had decreased significantly. The annual precipitation in Qinghai Qilian Mountains had increased most significantly in the early 21st century and changed abruptly, the increase range of precipitation in the middle and west sections had been larger than that in the east section. Annual precipitation days of daily precipitation more than 5 mm, 10 mm and 25 mm had increased significantly, especially at the beginning of the 21st century. However, days of precipitation more than 0.1 mm had decreased. The annual average strong wind days had been negatively correlated with the lake water-level fluctuation and river runoff. Reduction of strong wind days had alleviated water loss due to evaporation on lake surface and ground surface, improving vegetation had increased runoff generation and increased runoff into lakes. Precipitation had been positively correlated with lake water-level fluctuation and river runoff. Influenced by the increase of precipitation in the 21st century, the water level of the Qinghai Lake rises year by year, which has totally risen 1.67 m, reaching the water level in the late 1970s. In recent years, the runoff of the main rivers in the middle and west sections has also reached the maximum, while the runoff increase in the east section is not obvious. The annual average cumulative precipitations of more than 5 mm, 10 mm and 25 mm in the Qinghai Qilian Mountains is positively correlated with the flow of lakes and rivers, and the cumulative precipitations contribute significantly to the increase of lake water-level fluctuation and river runoff.

Key words: extreme climatic events, gale, rivers, warm night days, water level of the Qinghai Lake, runoff, Qinghai Qilian Mountains

中图分类号: 

  • P467