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冰川冻土 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 958-967.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2019.1007

• 寒旱区水文水资源 • 上一篇    

1990年以来天山乌鲁木齐河上游水资源研究进展

刘燕1, 刘友存1, 焦克勤2, 韩添丁2, 边晓辉3, 丁倩倩3   

  1. 1. 江西理工大学 资源与环境工程学院, 江西 赣州 341000;
    2. 中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    3. 江西理工大学 建筑与测绘工程学院, 江西 赣州 341000
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-19 修回日期:2019-06-04 发布日期:2019-11-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘友存,E-mail:liuyoucun@126.com. E-mail:liuyoucun@126.com
  • 作者简介:刘燕(1993-),女,湖南岳阳人,2017年在赣南师范大学获学士学位,现为江西理工大学在读硕士研究生,从事水文水资源和全球变化研究.E-mail:ly2017lhye@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471001;41861002;41771040);江西省自然科学基金项目(20181BAB203026);江西省创新创业高层次人才“千人计划”创新人才(青年类)项目;江西理工大学“清江学者”拔尖人才科研启动项目(JXUSTQJBJ2017002)资助

Advances on water resources research in upper reaches of the Urumqi River since 1990

LIU Yan1, LIU Youcun1, JIAO Keqin2, HAN Tianding2, BIAN Xiaohui3, DING Qianqian3   

  1. 1. School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi, China;
    2. Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. School of Architectural and Surveying and Mapping Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi, China
  • Received:2019-01-19 Revised:2019-06-04 Published:2019-11-28

摘要: 乌鲁木齐河是我国西北地区典型的降水、冰川和地下水综合补给的内陆河,对其水资源的研究不仅是西北寒区旱区水环境和水资源研究的热点,而且对区域生态环境改善和经济可持续发展具有重要意义。乌鲁木齐河水文水资源的研究内容十分广泛,并取得了很多高水平的学术成果。从高山区气候变化与冰冻圈的相互影响,山区降水变化与径流的相互影响,出山口径流对气候变化的响应以及洪灾、致灾因子分析,流域内同位素、树轮气候和水环境研究等四个方面总结了相关研究。结果表明:(1)乌鲁木齐河上游气候趋于暖湿。气温的升高很大程度上受冬季气温大幅度升高影响,气温对高山区冰川积雪的影响要大于降水;冬季负积温也加快了冻土的消融;气温和降水的变化导致乌鲁木齐河上游河段冰川后退加速,积雪融化、雪线上升,冻土活动层增厚。(2)乌鲁木齐河流域降水量和降水变化速率具有明显的垂直特征,在中高山地区降水量和降水变率较大;山区降水还具有年代际特征,20世纪90年代以来,山区降水量呈现增加趋势并促进了山区径流量的增加。(3)降水量和冰川融雪量的增加,很大程度上加大了乌鲁木齐河流域山区的径流量,使得出山口区域洪水灾害的发生频率增加。(4)同位素分析的运用对探索径流形成和转化的机理具有重要意义。树轮研究为乌鲁木齐河流域气候变化序列的重建提供了技术手段。今后,乌鲁木齐河水资源承载力、水循环过程和水污染问题,是区域实现生态环境建设和可持续发展的重要研究内容。

关键词: 冰川, 水文水资源, 乌鲁木齐河, 天山

Abstract: The Urumqi River in the Tianshan Mountains is an inland river with typical precipitation,glaciers and groundwater replenishment in Northwest China. The research on its water resources is not only a hotspot in the study of water environment and water resources in the arid and cold regions,but also important for the improvement of regional ecological environment and sustainable economic development. Therefore,the research content of hydrology and water resources in the Urumqi River basin is very extensive,and has achieved many high-level academic achievements. In this paper,it is reviewed such as the interaction between climate change and cryosphere in high mountain areas,the interaction between precipitation changes and runoff in mountainous areas, the response of mountain runoff to climate change and the analysis of floods and hazards,the study of isotope, tree-ring,climate and water environment in the basin. The four aspects have summarized the related research:(1)The temperature in upper reaches of the Urumqi River basin has changed to be warm and humid. The increase of temperature has been largely affected by the increase of winter temperature. The influence of temperature on the glacier-snow in the high mountain area has been greater than that of precipitation. The negative accumulated temperature in winter also has accelerated the thawing of frozen soil in the basin. Changes in temperature and precipitation has led to the acceleration of glacier ablation in upper reaches of the Urumqi River;as well as the melting of snow,the rising of the snow line and the thickening of the active layer of frozen soil. (2)Precipitation and precipitation change rate in Urumqi River basin have been obvious vertical characteristics,as well as the precipitation and precipitation change rate in the middle and high mountain areas are larger. Precipitation in mountainous areas also has interdecadal changing characteristics. Since the 1990s,precipitation in mountainous areas has increased. The trend has also contributed to the increase in mountain runoff. (3)The increase of precipitation and glacial snowmelt has greatly increased the runoff in the mountainous area of the basin,which has increased the frequency of flood disasters in the mountainous area. (4)The application of isotope analysis is of great significance for exploring the mechanisms of runoff formation and transformation. Tree-ring research provides a technical means for reconstructing the climate change sequence in the Urumqi River basin. In the future,the water resources carrying capacity,water cycle process and water pollution in the Urumqi River basin will be important research contents for regional ecological environment construction and sustainable development.

Key words: glacier, hydrology and water resources, Urumqi River, Tianshan Mountains

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6