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冰川冻土 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 1150-1161.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2019.1100

• 积雪与冰冻圈遥感 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原中东部积雪深度时空变化特征及其成因分析

沈鎏澄1, 吴涛1, 游庆龙2, 蒋国俊1, 解雪峰1, 朱丽东1, 尹敬文1   

  1. 1. 浙江师范大学 地理与环境科学学院, 浙江 金华 321004;
    2. 复旦大学 大气与海洋科学系/大气科学研究院, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-14 修回日期:2019-09-23 发布日期:2020-02-24
  • 通讯作者: 吴涛,E-mail:Twu@zjnu.cn. E-mail:Twu@zjnu.cn
  • 作者简介:沈鎏澄(1994-),男,浙江嘉兴人,2017年在西华师范大学获学士学位,现为浙江师范大学在读硕士研究生,从事青藏高原气候变化研究.E-mail:slc83328317@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFA0601702);国家自然科学基金项目(41771069;41572345);浙江省自然科学基金项目(LY19D010007)资助

Analysis of the characteristics of spatial and temporal variations of snow depth and their causes over the central and eastern Tibetan Plateau

SHEN Liucheng1, WU Tao1, YOU Qinglong2, JIANG Guojun1, XIE Xuefeng1, ZHU Lidong1, YIN Jingwen1   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, Zhejiang, China;
    2. Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences/Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China
  • Received:2019-05-14 Revised:2019-09-23 Published:2020-02-24

摘要: 基于逐日积雪深度(雪深)、逐月气温和逐月降水量地面观测资料,利用数理统计方法分析了青藏高原中东部地区1961-2014年雪深时空变化特征及其成因,结果表明:青藏高原雪深空间分布不均,存在喜马拉雅山脉南坡(高原西南部)、念青唐古拉山-唐古拉山-巴颜喀拉山-阿尼玛卿山(高原中部)和祁连山脉(高原东北部)三处雪深高值区,冬季最大,其次是春秋季,夏季仅在纬度或海拔较高处才有雪深记录;从长期来看雪深以减少为主,尤其是夏秋季。在青藏高原普遍"增温增湿"背景下,雪深表现为先增后减的变化特征;雪深随海拔升高而增加,但最大雪深并非出现在最高海拔处;在不同季节雪深的气象要素成因上,冬季由降水主导,其余季节由气温主导。1961-1998年冬春季雪深增加与降水增多有关,而1998-2014年气温的上升以及降水的减少共同导致了雪深的减少,夏秋季雪深持续减少与同期气温持续升高有关。

关键词: 青藏高原, 台站, 积雪深度, 时空变化, 海拔

Abstract: Based on daily snow depth, monthly precipitation and air temperature data, spatial and temporal characteristics of snow depth and their causes are analyzed using mathematical statistics over the central and eastern Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 2014. The results show that spatial distribution of snow depth in the plateau is uneven. And three high-value areas of snow depth appear over the plateau, i.e. the south slopes of the Himalayas in the southwestern Tibetan Plateau, Nyainqen Tanggula-Tanggula-Bayan Har-Anyemaqen in the central Tibetan Plateau and the Qilian Mountains in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Snow depth reaches the maximum in winter, followed by spring and autumn, and snow depth records only take place at high altitude or latitude in summer. Snow depth is mainly reducing in the long run, especially in summer and autumn. In the background of warming and wetting over the Tibetan Plateau, the snow depth firstly increases and then decreases, but not continuously. Snow depth increases with altitude, but the maximum snow depth does not appear at the highest altitude. Snow depth in winter is dominated by precipitation, but in the other seasons is dominated by air temperature. The increase of snow depth in winter and spring during 1961-1998 had related to the increase of precipitation. But both of increasing air temperature and decreasing precipitation have caused the decrease of snow depth after 1998. The continuous reduction of snow depth in summer and autumn is related to the continuous increase of air temperature during the same period.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, station, snow depth, spatial and temporal variations, altitude

中图分类号: 

  • P468.0+25