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冰川冻土 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (3): 823-833.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2020.0063

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

大兴安岭东坡新林林区冻土变化特征

常晓丽1,2(), 帖利民1, 金会军2, 何瑞霞2, 李晓英2, 王永平3   

  1. 1.湖南科技大学,湖南 湘潭 411202
    2.中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院 冻土工程国家重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730000
    3.北方民族大学,宁夏 银川 750021
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-13 修回日期:2020-06-15 出版日期:2020-10-31 发布日期:2020-12-08
  • 作者简介:常晓丽(1983 - ), 女, 山西平遥人, 副教授, 2011年在中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所获博士学位, 从事冻土环境与气候变化研究. E-mail: changxiaoli2002@163.com.
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671059);湖南省自然科学基金项目(2019JJ50179);宁夏自然科学基金项目(2019AAC03138);北方民族大学校级重点项目(2019KJ32)

The features of permafrost in Xinlin forest area on eastern slope of the Greater Khingan Mountains

Xiaoli CHANG1,2(), Limin TIE1, Huijun JIN2, Ruixia HE2, Xiaoying LI2, Yongping WANG3   

  1. 1.Hunan University of Science and Technology,Xiangtan 411202,Hunan,China
    2.State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000,China
    3.North Minzu University,Yinchuan 750021,China
  • Received:2019-05-13 Revised:2020-06-15 Online:2020-10-31 Published:2020-12-08

摘要:

大兴安岭处于欧亚大陆多年冻土带南缘, 其多年冻土形成、 发展和保存更多受制于植被、 水分等局地因子的影响。采用钻探、 探地雷达和冻土温度长期监测等手段研究发现, 放牧活动会影响大兴安岭东坡新林林区活动层厚度, 放牧活动比较强烈的地段, 活动层可达2.5 m, 放牧区边缘至未放牧区域, 活动层缩减至1.5 m。塔头2013年11月2.0 m处的地温仍然在0 ℃以上(0.04 ℃), 当放牧行为终止及加漠公路改道后, 2.0 m处的温度开始逐渐恢复, 温度由-0.12 ℃降到-0.69 ℃, 1.5 m处的温度则由0.17 ℃降到-0.42 ℃, 2018年底塔头的活动层厚度已经小于1.5 m。从地表植被类型上看, 松树林、 塔头和灌丛的活动层多年平均厚度分别为0.8 m、 1.3 m和0.7 m, 近地表0.5 m处的年平均地温为0.07 ℃、 0.52 ℃和0.22 ℃, 年变化深度处(11 m)的年均温度为-1.34 ℃, -0.98 ℃和-2.19 ℃。从地温曲线类型上看, 灌丛下的多年冻土比较稳定, 地温曲线属于正梯度型。松树林和塔头下的冻土温度比较复杂, 松树林地温曲线为偏负梯度型-零梯度型-偏正梯度型, 塔头为负梯度型-扭曲型。在地表植被类型和人类活动的共同影响下, 研究区多年冻土经历了地表干扰开始退化、 干扰消除不再退化以及慢慢恢复的过程。

关键词: 大兴安岭, 多年冻土温度, 放牧活动, 冻土退化, 地温曲线

Abstract:

In the southern margin of permafrost zone of the Eurasian continent, permafrost in the Greater Khingan Mountains is greatly sensitive to local factors such as vegetation and moisture for its formation, development and preservation. In order to reveal the specific features of permafrost in these areas, drilling, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and long-term monitoring of permafrost temperature were conducted in Xinlin forest area on eastern slope of the Greater Khingan Mountains. In the Greater Khingan Mountains, the active layer thickness (ALT) is significantly affected by vegetation type and grazing intensity. The ALT reaches 2.5 m at severe grazing plots, but shrinks to 1.5 m at light and non-grazing grazing plots. The ground temperature at the depth of 2.0 m was 0.04 ℃ at Carax tato zone in November 2013, and began to recover gradually after grazing termination and the Gammu Highway diversion, from -0.12 ℃ to -0.69 ℃. Meanwhile, the ground temperature at the depth of 1.5 m was reduced from 0.17 ℃ to -0.42 ℃. Thus the ALT was less than 1.5 m at Carax tato zone. Changing with vegetation type, the annual ALT was 0.8 m, 1.3 m and 0.7 m, respectively, at larch forest zone, Carax tato zone and shrub zone. The annual average temperature at 11m depth were -1.34, -0.98 and -2.19 ℃ for the three ground surfaces. According to the profiles of ground temperature, the geothermal profiles belonged to the positive gradient type, indicating a relatively stable permafrost at shrub zone. However, it is more complicated at larch forest plot with negative - zero - positive gradient type geothermal curve and Carax tato zone with negative - twist type geothermal curve. Permafrost thickness in larch forest, Carax tato zone and shrub zone is 63.8 m, 60.3 m and 84.6 m, respectively. Because of the combined effect of vegetation and human activities, permafrost in the study area experienced a slight degradation, degradation of termination due to disturbance removal and gradual recovery.

Key words: Greater Khingan Mountains, permafrost temperature, grazing, permafrost degradation, ground temperature profile

中图分类号: 

  • P642.14