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冰川冻土 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 786-797.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2021.0020

• • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原高寒区生物地理学研究进展

宋艾1,2(),杨久成2,3,丁文娜2,刘佳2()   

  1. 1.云南大学 古生物研究院,云南 昆明 650500
    2.中国科学院 西双版纳热带植物园 热带森林生态学重点实验室,云南 西双版纳 666303
    3.昆明理工大学 国土资源工程学院,云南 昆明 650093
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-18 修回日期:2021-06-09 出版日期:2021-06-30 发布日期:2021-05-18
  • 通讯作者: 刘佳 E-mail:songaioppo@163.com;liujia@xtbg.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:宋艾,博士研究生,主要从事青藏高原及周边地区新生代植物化石研究. E-mail: songaioppo@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42002020);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0705)

The advances in biogeography research on Tibetan Plateau alpine bioregion

Ai SONG1,2(),Jiucheng YANG2,3,Wenna DING2,Jia LIU2()   

  1. 1.Institute of Palaeontology,Yunnan University,Kunming 650500,China
    2.CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology,Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xishuangbanna 666303,Yunnan,China
    3.Faculty of Land Resource Engineering,Kunming University of Science and Technology,Kunming 650093,China
  • Received:2021-05-18 Revised:2021-06-09 Online:2021-06-30 Published:2021-05-18
  • Contact: Jia LIU E-mail:songaioppo@163.com;liujia@xtbg.ac.cn

摘要:

近年来,随着DNA测序技术的发展,青藏高原及周边地区的生物地理学研究取得重大成果,从生物演化方面着手探讨了青藏高原隆升历史及其气候效应。综合近年来地质学、古生物学与生物地理学研究进展,我们发现高原及周边地区高寒生物类群的起源和分化时间以及多样性演化过程表明早在渐新世青藏高原部分地区就已经存在高寒生态系统,晚中新世以来青藏高原不同组成部分的地貌与气候格局发生重大改变,高寒生物的祖先类群不断迁入正在生长的高原或在高原上就地演化出适应高寒生境的新物种。晚上新世高寒区物种分化速率快速升高,多样性增加,可能是高原巨大山系和水系以及冰川作用造成地理隔离的结果。同时,生物地理学研究发现青藏高原及周边地区的高寒区与北半球高纬度地区存在密切联系,在第四纪冰期期间并未形成覆盖整个青藏高原的大冰盖,高原面上仍存在很多生物避难所。地质学、古生物学与生物地理学等进行的多学科交叉研究对全方位理解青藏高原隆升历史及其气候效应具有重要意义。

关键词: 青藏高原, 高原隆升, 生物地理学, 系统发育, 第四纪冰期

Abstract:

In recent years, with the development of DNA sequencing technology, biogeography research on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas has provided us with biological evidence for understanding the plateau uplift and its climatic effects. Based on recent advances in geology and biogeography, the origin of alpine biota in the plateau and surrounding areas suggests that alpine ecosystems existed in parts of the Tibetan Plateau as early as the Oligocene, and the geomorphology and climate of the Tibetan Plateau have undergone major changes since the late Miocene. The ancestors of these alpine species migrated to the rapidly rising plateau or evolved in situ endemic species adaptation to high-elevation habitats. The accelerated differentiation and formation of species since the late Pliocene may result from glacial action and geographical isolation, which caused by the formation of the huge plateau mountain and river system. The alpine biota of the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas are closely related to the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Biogeography research also indicated that no large ice sheet covered the entire Tibetan Plateau and there are still nature refuges on the plateau during the Quaternary. Geology, paleontology, and evolutionary biology should be integrated in a holistic way in order to fully understand the history of the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and its climatic effects.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, plateau uplift, biogeography, phylogeny, Quaternary glaciation

中图分类号: 

  • Q151.5