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冰川冻土 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 902-916.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2021.0058

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北极快速增暖背景下冰冻圈变化及其影响研究综述

蔡子怡1(),游庆龙1,2(),陈德亮3,张若楠1,陈金雷4,康世昌4,5   

  1. 1.复旦大学 大气与海洋科学系,上海 200438
    2.中国气象局-复旦大学海洋气象灾害联合实验室,上海 200438
    3.瑞典哥德堡大学 地球科学系,瑞典 哥德堡 40530
    4.中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730000
    5.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-02 修回日期:2021-06-10 出版日期:2021-06-30 发布日期:2021-07-29
  • 通讯作者: 游庆龙 E-mail:zycai19@fudan.edu.cn;qlyou@fudan.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:蔡子怡,直博研究生,主要从事北极气候变化研究. E-mail: zycai19@fudan.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0105);国家自然科学基金项目(41971072)

Review of changes and impacts of the cryosphere under the background of rapid Arctic warming

Ziyi CAI1(),Qinglong YOU1,2(),Deliang CHEN3,Ruonan ZHANG1,Jinlei CHEN4,Shichang KANG4,5   

  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences,Fudan University,Shanghai 200438,China
    2.CMA-FDU Joint Laboratory of Marine Meteorology,Shanghai 200438,China
    3.Department of Earth Sciences,University of Gothenburg,Gothenburg 40530,Sweden
    4.State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000,China
    5.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2021-05-02 Revised:2021-06-10 Online:2021-06-30 Published:2021-07-29
  • Contact: Qinglong YOU E-mail:zycai19@fudan.edu.cn;qlyou@fudan.edu.cn

摘要:

北极具有独特的地理位置和战略地位,是当前全球变化研究的热点区域之一。北极增暖是全球平均值的两倍以上,被称为“北极放大”现象。在北极快速增暖背景下,冰冻圈尤其是海冰显著萎缩,对北极乃至中纬度天气气候产生深远影响。对北极快速增暖背景下冰冻圈主要要素(包括海冰、冰盖、冰川、积雪和冻土)时空变化特征及未来预估进行了综述,同时总结了海冰变化对北极气候系统(大气圈、水圈、岩石圈和生物圈)以及中纬度极端天气气候事件的影响。指出当前北极冰冻圈变化研究受观测资料缺乏及模式模拟不确定等问题限制,其机理及对中纬度天气气候影响机制仍存在争议。未来还需要加强北极地区的综合监测,提高模式对北极气候系统物理过程的模拟能力,进行多模式、多数据、多方法的集成研究。

关键词: 北极, 增暖, 冰冻圈, 变化, 影响

Abstract:

The Arctic has a unique geographical location and strategic position, and it has become a hotspot for global change. The Arctic warming is more than twice than the global mean, which is called Arctic amplification. Under the background of rapid warming, the Arctic cryosphere has undergone strong changes, which have profound impacts on the Arctic climate and even the mid-latitude climate. This study summarizes the spatial and temporal characteristics and future projections of the main elements of the cryosphere (including sea ice, Greenland Ice Sheet, glaciers, snow and permafrost) under the background of rapid Arctic warming. At the same time, the impacts of cryospheric changes on the Arctic climate system (atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere) and extreme weather and climate events in mid-latitudes are reviewed. It is pointed out that the current research on the Arctic climate system still suffers from the insufficient observational data and the uncertainty of model simulations. Mechanisms responsible for the Arctic climate system and the ways in which the Arctic cryosphere influences the mid-latitudes are still controversial. This study motivates further effort to further develop the monitoring system for the Arctic, improve models’ ability to realistically represent the components and physical processes of the Arctic climate system, and conduct integrated research based on multi-data, multi-methods, and multi-models.

Key words: Arctic, warming, cryosphere, changes, impacts

中图分类号: 

  • P941.62