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冰川冻土 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (2): 381-389.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2021.0134

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

滑雪场积雪模拟研究进展

邓婕1,2(), 车涛1()   

  1. 1.中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院 甘肃省遥感重点实验室 黑河遥感试验研究站, 甘肃 兰州 730000
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-08 修回日期:2020-12-30 出版日期:2021-04-30 发布日期:2022-08-11
  • 通讯作者: 车涛 E-mail:dengjie@lzb.ac.cn;chetao@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:邓婕,博士研究生,主要从事冰冻圈人文服务功能研究. E-mail: dengjie@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金委重大项目“中国冰冻圈服务功能形成过程及其综合区划研究”(41690140)

Advances in snow simulation for ski resorts

Jie DENG1,2(), Tao CHE1()   

  1. 1.Heihe Remote Sensing Experimental Research Station,Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing of Gansu Province,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000,China
    2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2020-04-08 Revised:2020-12-30 Online:2021-04-30 Published:2022-08-11
  • Contact: Tao CHE E-mail:dengjie@lzb.ac.cn;chetao@lzb.ac.cn

摘要:

滑雪场的积雪条件是评价其盈利能力的关键指标。通过积雪模型准确地模拟滑雪场积雪条件对评估滑雪旅游目的地的气候风险具有重要意义,积雪模型亦可为滑雪场的造雪量和造雪时间提供科学依据。首先简要概述了滑雪场积雪模拟的发展趋势,介绍了具体的模拟方法。分析发现,应用于滑雪场积雪模拟的模型从早期的经验线性模型发展为简化的物理模型,再到精细的能量平衡模型;从仅模拟自然积雪发展为结合自然积雪和人工造雪,再到细致的考虑雪道维护过程。依据对自然积雪、人工造雪和雪道维护模拟方法的不同,滑雪场的积雪模拟方法可以简单的分为两类:单点或半分布式模拟和分布式模拟。单点或半分布式模拟将滑雪场作为一个点进行研究或等间隔地选取滑雪场多个海拔带进行模拟输出平均结果,通常采用简化的能量平衡模型和基于度日因子的概念模型,以简化的假设来解释人工造雪和雪道维护过程,以相对粗糙的方式表示雪的物理性质。分布式模拟在网格或雪道上划分出来的小单元尺度上对滑雪场积雪进行模拟,采用精细的多层能量平衡模型,详细描述了滑雪场的基础设施、人工造雪和雪道维护过程。由于我国大部分地区自然积雪资源匮乏,积雪模型在我国滑雪场地应用时需重点考虑人工造雪。在雪道人工管理模式方面,一些在欧美滑雪场广泛应用的规则照搬至我国滑雪场可能会出现较大误差。最后,考虑到对滑雪场积雪进行模拟时不需要非常详细地描述雪层内部物理过程,简化的分布式融雪模型更适合用于滑雪场的积雪模拟。

关键词: 滑雪场, 积雪模型, 人工造雪, 雪道维护

Abstract:

Snow condition is a key indicator to measure the profitability of ski resorts. As a snow-dependent industry, ski tourism is extremely sensitive to climate change. With global warming, it is significant to assess the climate change risk of ski resorts. Snowmaking has become a standard snow management strategy to lessen the dependency on the variability of natural snow conditions. Snow models can accurately simulate snow conditions in ski resorts and provide scientific guidance for the management of the amount of artificial snow and the time of snowmaking. In this paper, we reviewed the main scientific literature on snow simulation for ski resorts. Snow models for assessing the vulnerability of ski resorts have evolved from the earliest empirical linear model to the simplified physical model and then evolved to the complex energy balance model. These models were developed from simulating only natural snow to incorporating snowmaking and grooming. According to different simulation methods of natural snow, snowmaking and grooming, snow models are classified into two categories: site-scale or semi-distributed simulation and distributed simulation. Site-scale or semi-distributed simulation methods usually employed a degree-day model or a simplified energy balance model. In these methods, snowmaking and grooming were accounted for using a few simple assumptions, and the physical properties of snow were represented in a comparatively coarse manner. Distributed simulation methods used multi-layer energy balance snow models to represent the ski resort infrastructure and the specifics of the snowmaking and grooming processes in a considerable level of detail. Moreover, we put forward some points that should be paid attention to when applying snow models to ski resorts in China. The snow models should focus on snowmaking due to the scarcity of natural snow in most regions of China and the various management modes of ski slopes should be considered. Finally, the simplified distributed snow model is considering to be more suitable for snow simulation in ski resorts due to it is unnecessary to provide a detailed description of the internal physical process of snowpack at a ski resort.

Key words: ski resort, snow model, snowmaking, grooming

中图分类号: 

  • P426.63+5