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冰川冻土 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (4): 1165-1174.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2022.0108

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

1984—2019年念青唐古拉山中段冰川ELA变化估算及特征分析

李亚鹏1(), 张威1(), 柴乐2, 唐倩玉1, 葛润泽1, 孙波1   

  1. 1.辽宁师范大学 地理科学学院,辽宁 大连 116029
    2.东华理工大学 地球科学学院,江西 南昌 330013
  • 收稿日期:2022-02-28 修回日期:2022-08-08 出版日期:2022-08-25 发布日期:2022-09-14
  • 通讯作者: 张威 E-mail:lyplnnu@163.com;zhangweilnu@163.com
  • 作者简介:李亚鹏,博士研究生,主要从事气候地貌与沉积研究. E-mail: lyplnnu@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42071013)

Estimation and characteristic analysis of ELA variations in middle section of the Nyainqêntanglha Mountains from 1984 to 2019

Yapeng LI1(), Wei ZHANG1(), Le CHAI2, Qianyu TANG1, Runze GE1, Bo SUN1   

  1. 1.School of Geography,Liaoning Normal University,Dalian 116029,Liaoning,China
    2.School of Earth Sciences,East China University of Technology,Nanchang 330013,China
  • Received:2022-02-28 Revised:2022-08-08 Online:2022-08-25 Published:2022-09-14
  • Contact: Wei ZHANG E-mail:lyplnnu@163.com;zhangweilnu@163.com

摘要:

平衡线高度(equilibrium line altitude,ELA)是冰川响应气候变化的直接反映,分析其变化特征对于了解现在和过去的气候具有重要意义。念青唐古拉山中段作为西南季风通道以及怒江与雅鲁藏布江的分水岭,ELA变化及特征研究可为不同流域冰川变化与气候相互关系提供参考。基于遥感影像及气候数据,结合模型计算的冰川ELA数据作为输入参数,建立多元线性回归方程,重建并分析了1984—2019年间念青唐古拉山中段冰川ELA变化。结果表明:研究时段内平均ELA为5 360 m a.s.l.,总体呈上升趋势,上升速率为1.57 m?a-1。ELA年变化量显示出波动变化特征,波动范围为5 360~5 420 m a.s.l.,上升幅度为60 m。受印度季风、流域位置及冰川朝向等因素影响,各流域ELA变化具有差异性,霞曲流域、易贡藏布流域和麦曲流域多年平均ELA高程分别为5 335 m a.s.l.、4 987 m a.s.l.和5 317 m a.s.l.,平均上升幅度分别为265 m、314 m和335 m,上升速率分别7.57 m?a-1、8.97 m?a-1和9.57 m?a-1。对冰川区多年ELA变化的气候响应分析显示,ELA变化主要受气温控制,随气温变化1 ℃,冰川ELA总体波动幅度为126.02 m。

关键词: ELA重建, 年际波动, 气候变化, 念青唐古拉山

Abstract:

Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is a direct reflection of glacier response to climate change. Analyzing its variation characteristics is of great significance to understand the current and past climate. However, because there are only a few glaciers in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas with long-time scale continuous observation data, the height of the equilibrium line of most other monitored glaciers is only the observation data in recent years, and the time series is relatively short. At the same time, the distribution of plateau meteorological stations is mainly concentrated in the eastern edge, and there is no station detection data in some glacier distribution areas, which largely limits the comparative analysis and research on the height variation of glacier equilibrium line and its climate sensitivity in different regions. The middle part of Nyainqêntanglha Mountains as the southwest monsoon channel and the watershed of the Nu River and the Yarlung Zangbo (Brahmaputra) River, the study of ELA variations and characteristics can provide a reference for the interrelationship between glacier changes and climate in different basins. In this study, the natural domain method is used to select the glacier distribution area in the middle of Nyainqêntanglha Mountains as the research point. Through the extraction and analysis of remote sensing images, glacier cataloging data and meteorological data, and using air temperature, solid precipitation data and ELA as input parameters, we try to establish multiple linear regression equations, reconstruct the glacier ELA in the study area from 1984 to 2019, and discuss and analyze the variation trend of ELA on its interannual scale regional heterogeneity and climate response. The results show that the multi-year average ELA in the study area is 5 360 m a.s.l., showing an overall upward trend. The research on the annual variation of ELA shows the characteristics of fluctuation. The fluctuation range of ELA is 5 360~5 420 m a.s.l., the fluctuation range is about 60 m, and the average rising rate is 1.57 m·a-1. Analysis of ELA variations in different watersheds shows that from 1984 to 2019, the ELA ranges of Xiaqu, Yigong Zangbo and Maiqu are 5 178~5 492 m a.s.l., 4 855~5 120 m a.s.l. and 5 150~5 485 m a.s.l., respectively. Under the background of climate warming, the variations of ELA are generally increasing, but the variations of ELA in different basins are different. Among them, the ELA variation in the Maiqu basin is the largest, with an average increase of 335 m, the Xiaqu basin and the Yigong Zangbo basin increased by 265 m and 314 m, respectively, with a rising rate of 9.57 m·a-1, 7.57 m·a-1, and 8.97 m·a-1, respectively. At the same time, statistical analysis shows that the annual average ELA elevations of the Xiaqu, Yigong Zangbo and Maiqu watersheds are 5 335 m a.s.l., 4 987 m a.s.l. and 5 317 m a.s.l., respectively, showing a decrease in the northwest-southeast direction, and a higher elevation on the north slope. Based on the statistics of average air temperature, solid precipitation and glacier ELA in the middle of Nyainqêntanglha Mountains from 1984 to 2019, the analysis of the response of glacier ELA variation to climate shows that the glacier ELA in the study area is mainly controlled by air temperature variation. With the air temperature variation of 1 ℃, the fluctuation range of ELA is 126.02 m. Moreover, with the continuous increase of air temperature, the glacier ELA in the middle of Nyainqêntanglha Mountains rises and the glacier will continue to retreat.

Key words: ELA reconstruction, interannual fluctuation, climate change, Nyainqêntanglha Mountains

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6