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冰川冻土 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (5): 1492-1500.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2022.0132

• 冰工程专栏 • 上一篇    

基于现场观测的辽东湾东岸海冰环境基本特征

马玉贤(), 许宁, 袁帅, 刘雪琴, 史文奇, 周雪(), 刘永青, 陈元   

  1. 国家海洋环境监测中心,辽宁 大连 116023
  • 收稿日期:2022-02-07 修回日期:2022-07-06 出版日期:2022-10-25 发布日期:2022-11-05
  • 通讯作者: 周雪 E-mail:yxma@nmemc.org.cn;xzhou@nmemc.org.cn
  • 作者简介:马玉贤,助理研究员,主要从事海冰物理力学性质研究. E-mail: yxma@nmemc.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFA0604901);大连市支持高层次人才创新创业项目(2019RJ07);辽宁省科技计划项目(2021JH2/10300004)

Basic characteristics of sea ice environment on the east coast of Liaodong Bay based on field observations

Yuxian MA(), Ning XU, Shuai YUAN, Xueqin LIU, Wenqi SHI, Xue ZHOU(), Yongqing LIU, Yuan CHEN   

  1. National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center,Dalian 116023,Liaoning,China
  • Received:2022-02-07 Revised:2022-07-06 Online:2022-10-25 Published:2022-11-05
  • Contact: Xue ZHOU E-mail:yxma@nmemc.org.cn;xzhou@nmemc.org.cn

摘要:

全面获取气-冰-海环境特征数据已成为当前冬季现场观测的重要任务,用于准确、快速开展区域冰情评价预测,以满足海冰防灾减灾工作需求。基于辽东湾东岸鲅鱼圈雷达海冰观测站(15 a)与温坨子附近海域(9 a)的冬季观测数据,对辽东湾东岸的风、水温、海冰时空分布等环境基本特征进行了探讨。对鲅鱼圈站1月和2月4级风(5.5 m·s-1)以上数据进行分析,发现偏北风自2016年以来呈现由N、NNE、NE向NE转变,偏南风自2016年以来主风向由SSW向WSW转变。对温坨子海冰观测站水温观测数据进行分析,发现水温表现出降温期、平稳期与回温期,降温期发生于12月至次年1月中旬,平稳期发生于1月下旬至2月中旬,回温期发生于2月下旬;当气温低于-10 ℃时,水温基本维持在-1.4 ℃附近,气温处于-10~-5 ℃时,水温基本分布于-1.4~-0.5 ℃区间,气温处于-5~5 ℃时,观测点水温基本分布于-1.4~3 ℃。对鲅鱼圈站与温坨子站能见范围内的逐日海冰分布面积比例进行分析,发现海冰面积呈现增大期、稳定期与减少期,鲅鱼圈站附近12月12日至次年1月9日前后为增大期(对应初冰期),1月9日前后至2月8日前后为稳定期(对应盛冰期),2月8日前后至3月15日前后为减少期(对应融冰期);温坨子站与鲅鱼圈站类似。对鲅鱼圈站与温坨子站附近海域海冰结冰期进行统计,给出了两个站点的平均初冰日、终冰日与结冰期,并与历史数据进行了对比。结合初冰日与终冰日的环境要素分析,对初冰与终冰的规律特征进行了总结,对气候变化背景下的辽东湾冰情评估有着重要意义。

关键词: 鲅鱼圈, 温坨子, 气象, 水温, 冰情特征

Abstract:

Obtaining air-ice-sea environmental characteristic data has become an important task for field observation in winter, it is used to accurately and quickly carry out regional ice assessment and prediction to meet the needs of sea ice disaster prevention and mitigation. Based on the winter observation data of the Bayuquan Radar Sea Ice Observation Station (15 years) and the sea area near Wentuozi (9 years) on the east coast of Liaodong Bay, the basic characteristics of the sea ice environment such as wind, water temperature and distribution of sea ice are discussed. Analysis of the data of the Bayuquan Station and the winds greater than Level 4 shows that the northerly winds have changed from N, NNE and NE to NE since 2016, and the southerly winds have changed from SSW to WSW since 2016. The water temperature observation data of Wentuozi were analyzed, and it was found that the water temperature showed the cooling period, the stabilization period and the heating period. The cooling period occurred from December to mid-January of the following year, the stabilization period occurred from late January to mid-February, and the heating period occurred in late February. When the air temperature was lower than -10 ℃, the water temperature was basically maintained near -1.4 ℃; when the air temperature was at -10~-5 ℃, the water temperature was basically distributed in the range of -1.4~-0.5 ℃; when the air temperature was at -5~5 ℃, and the water temperature at the observation point was basically distributed at -1.4~3 ℃. The proportion of ice floes in the visible range of Bayuquan and Wentuozi Stations was analyzed, it was found that the sea ice area showed an increase zone, a stable zone and a decrease zone. Bayuquan Station was an increase zone from December 12 to January 9 of the following year, the sea ice range was a stable zone from around January 9 to February 8, and the decrease zone from around February 8 to around March 15; the Wentuozi Station was similar to the Bayuquan Station. Statistics of ice period in the waters near Bayuquan and Wentuozi are given, and the average first-ice date, final-ice date and ice period of the two locations are given, and compared with historical data. Combined with the analysis of the environmental elements of first-ice date and final-ice date, the regular characteristics of the first ice and the final ice are summarized, and it is of great significance for the assessment of ice conditions in Liaodong Bay.

Key words: Bayuquan, Wentuozi, meteorology, water temperature, ice condition characteristics

中图分类号: 

  • P731.15