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冰川冻土 ›› 2023, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (2): 409-422.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2023.0031

• 第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

石冰川形成机制、运动特征及水文效应研究进展

周宇1,2(), 李国玉2,3,4(), 马巍2,3,4, 金会军2,5(), 陈敦2,3,4, 毛云程6, 杜青松2,3,4   

  1. 1.福建工程学院 土木工程学院 地下工程福建省高校重点实验室,福建 福州 350118
    2.中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院 冻土工程 国家重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730000
    3.中国科学院大学 工程科学学院,北京 100049
    4.中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院 大兴安岭 冻土工程与环境观测研究站,黑龙江 加格达奇 165000
    5.东北林业大学 东北多年冻土区地质环境系统教育部野外科学观测研究站/ 土木工程学院 寒区科学与工程研究院,黑龙江 哈尔滨 150040
    6.西北民族大学 土木工程学院,甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2023-02-24 修回日期:2023-04-14 出版日期:2023-04-25 发布日期:2023-08-28
  • 通讯作者: 李国玉,金会军 E-mail:zhouyu@lzb.ac.cn;guoyuli@lzb.ac.cn;hjjin@nefu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:周宇,讲师,主要从事寒区环境与工程研究. E-mail: zhouyu@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0905);国家自然科学基金项目(U1703244);冻土工程国家重点实验室开放基金项目(SKLFSE-ZQ-58);福建工程学院科研发展基金项目(GY-Z23026)

Formation mechanism, movement characteristics and hydrological effect of rock glaciers: a review

Yu ZHOU1,2(), Guoyu LI2,3,4(), Wei MA2,3,4, Huijun JIN2,5(), Dun CHEN2,3,4, Yuncheng MAO6, Qingsong DU2,3,4   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Underground Engineering of Fujian Province University,School of Civil Engineering,Fujian University of Technology,Fuzhou 350118,China
    2.State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000,China
    3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
    4.Da Xing’anling Observation and Research Station of Frozen-ground Engineering and Environment,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Jiagedaqi 165000,China
    5.Northeast-China Observatory and Research-Station of Permafrost Geo-Environment-Ministry of Education,Institute of Cold-Regions Science and Engineering,School of Civil Engineering,Northeast Forestry University,Harbin 150040,China
    6.School of Civil Engineering,Northwest Minzu University,Lanzhou 730000,China
  • Received:2023-02-24 Revised:2023-04-14 Online:2023-04-25 Published:2023-08-28
  • Contact: Guoyu LI, Huijun JIN E-mail:zhouyu@lzb.ac.cn;guoyuli@lzb.ac.cn;hjjin@nefu.edu.cn

摘要:

石冰川是含冰的舌状或叶状多年冻结地质体,广泛分布于全球范围内的高海拔和高纬度冰缘区,是多年冻土边界的重要代用指标。活动型石冰川沿山谷/坡向下缓慢蠕动,其活动性在全球变暖背景下逐渐增强,成为一种日益重要的寒区地质灾害。此外,石冰川内部含有大量冰体,是干旱与半干旱地区一种重要的淡水资源。基于国内外研究进展,将石冰川分为倒石堆型、岩屑覆盖型、冰碛型、昆仑山型,并分别讨论了不同类型石冰川的形成机制。石冰川的运动主要由多年冻土蠕变、冻胀融沉、整体前进,以及岩屑与冰的补给等过程组成,其时空变化主要受到气候条件、地形环境、内部结构,以及外力作用等多种因素的共同影响。石冰川对全球变暖的响应主要表现为地温增加引起的局部区域运动加速或失稳以及多年冻土融化导致的石冰川失活。在冰川退缩及季节性积雪持续时间缩短背景下,冰碛型石冰川表面的岩屑覆盖层作为保温隔热层,可以保护下伏冰体减缓融化,延缓和降低石冰川对气候变化的响应,成为干旱与半干旱地区一种日益重要的水资源。我国目前已有超过13 511条石冰川纳入编目,总面积超过945.51 km2,但仍然十分缺乏系统性的石冰川编目及长期的现场监测和模型研究。

关键词: 石冰川, 多年冻土, 气候变化, 冰缘地貌, 寒区地质灾害

Abstract:

Rock glaciers are lobate or tongue-shaped bodies of frozen debris, which are important substitute index of permafrost boundary and widely distributed in high altitude and high latitude periglacial areas around the world. Active rock glaciers are typically moving downslope or downvalley slowly, but the climate change may cause significant increase of rock glaciers, resulting in serious geological disasters in cold regions. In addition, rock glaciers might consist of massive ice which could be important freshwater resource in arid and semi-arid areas. Based on the literature review, rock glaciers are divided into talus-derived, glacier-derived, ice cored, Kunlun Mountain type, and the formation mechanisms of different types of rock glaciers are discussed respectively. The movement of rock glacier may develop from permafrost creep, frost heave and thaw settlement, debris supply, and new ground ice formation, among others. The variation of rock glacier movement characteristics on the spatio-temporal scale is mainly affected by climatic conditions, topographic environment, internal structure, external forces, among others. The response of rock glaciers to global warming will lead to two opposite results: the acceleration or instability caused by the increase of ground temperature and the deactivation of rock glaciers caused by permafrost melting. In the context of continuous retreat of glaciers and the shortening of the duration of seasonal snow, the debris cover as a thermal insulation layer can protect the underlying ice bodies from melting, delay and reduce the response of rock glacier to climate change, thus rock glacier will become an increasingly important water resource in arid and semi-arid areas. At present, more than 13 511 rock glaciers with more than 945.51 km2 of total area have been inventoried in China, but there is still a significant lack of systematic rock glacier inventory and long-term on-site monitoring and model research.

Key words: rock glacier, permafrost, climate change, periglacial geomorphology, geological disasters in cold regions

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6