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冰川冻土 ›› 2023, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (2): 480-496.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2023.0037

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

阿尼玛卿山冰川跃动基本特征研究

郭万钦1(), 上官冬辉1, 蒋宗立2, 刘时银3,1, 康世昌1, 魏俊锋4, 郭小军1, 陈立群1   

  1. 1.中国科学院 西北生态环境资源研究院 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730000
    2.湖南科技大学 地球科学与空间信息工程学院,湖南 湘潭 411201
    3.云南大学 国际河流和生态安全研究院,云南 昆明 650500
    4.湖南科技大学 资源环境与安全工程学院,湖南 湘潭 411201
  • 收稿日期:2023-04-02 修回日期:2023-04-14 出版日期:2023-04-25 发布日期:2023-08-28
  • 作者简介:郭万钦,副研究员,主要从事遥感冰川编目与变化、跃动冰川遥感与野外监测研究. E-mail: guowq@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42271156);甘肃省科技计划项目(22ZD6FA005);中国科学院“西部之光”青年学者A类项目;科技部科技基础性工作专项(2013FY111400)

Study on basic characteristics of glacier surges on the Anyemaqen Mountain

Wanqin GUO1(), Donghui SHANGGUAN1, Zongli JIANG2, Shiyin LIU3,1, Shichang KANG1, Junfeng WEI4, Xiaojun GUO1, Liqun CHEN1   

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000,China
    2.School of Earth Sciences and Spatial Information Engineering,Hunan University of Science and Technology,Xiangtan 411201,Hunan,China
    3.Institute of International Rivers and Eco-security,Yunnan University,Kunming 650500,China
    4.School of Resource & Environment and Safety Engineering,Hunan University of Science and Technology,Xiangtan 411201,Hunan,China
  • Received:2023-04-02 Revised:2023-04-14 Online:2023-04-25 Published:2023-08-28

摘要:

已有研究表明阿尼玛卿山地区有4条跃动冰川,其中西坡晓玛沟冰川的跃动已经造成4次冰川垮塌灾害。基于1977年以来Landsat和2015年以来Sentinel-2等卫星影像,以冰川末端和表面典型地物变化为主要参考,研究了阿尼玛卿山地区跃动冰川的分布和跃动事件发生、持续时间以及跃动周期等基本特征。结果显示,阿尼玛卿山地区有多达11条跃动冰川(包括分支冰川),条数和面积分别占2022年该地区冰川总条数和总面积的约10%和约66%。1986年以来,阿尼玛卿山地区已经发生了17次冰川跃动事件,其中曲什安22号和切木曲23号冰川的跃动目前仍在进行中。西坡晓玛沟冰川2000年以来的频繁跃动已造成5次不同规模的冰川垮塌灾害事件,其中2021年的跃动和垮塌事件此前未被报道。此外,尚有7条冰川在1986年以来某些时段有微弱前进现象,疑似也发生了一定程度的跃动,条数和面积分别占2022年阿尼玛卿山地区冰川总条数和总面积的约6%和约13%。研究结果还显示,阿尼玛卿山冰川的跃动表现为以慢速跃动为主的特征,并且多具有50年以上的跃动周期。在1990年以来的气候变暖背景下,维格勒当雄冰川和哈龙冰川的跃动特征发生了较明显的改变,表现为跃动幅度变小、跃动速度降低。同时,多条冰川积累区陡峭后壁产生大范围冰崩,冰川不稳定性增加。气候变暖还可能已导致玛卿岗日冰帽稳定性的降低,对晓玛沟和维格勒当雄等外溢冰川的跃动和垮塌产生一定影响。

关键词: 阿尼玛卿山, 冰川跃动, 冰川垮塌灾害, 集群分布

Abstract:

Previous studies show that there are four surge-type glaciers on the Anyemaqen Mountain, and the surges of Xiaomagou Glacier on the west slope have caused four glacier collapse disasters. This work studied the distribution, dates of the occurrence, durations and repeating cycles of glacier surges on Anyemaqen Mountain by analyzing a vast amount of satellite images including Landsat images since 1977 and Sentinel-2 images since 2015, and taking the changes on the horizontal position of glacier termini and typical surface features as the reference. The results show that there are totally eleven surge-type glaciers (including the branches of several glaciers) on Anyemaqen Mountain, accounting for approximately 10% and 66% of the total number and area of glaciers in this region in 2022. The results also revealed that totally seventeen glacier surge events have occurred in this region since 1986, of which the surges of Qushen’an No. 22 and Qiemuqu No. 23 Glaciers are still in progress. The frequent surges of Xiaomagou Glacier since 2000 have caused five glacier collapse disasters with different extents, in which the 2021’s surge and collapse were not reported before. Furthermore, there are seven glaciers are suspected to have been also surged, which show slight advances in some periods after 1986, and accounting for about 6% and 13% of the total glaciers number and area of in 2022. The results also indicate that the glacier surges on Anyemaqen Mountain are primarily in slow manner, and mostly have >50 years surge cycles. The surge behaviors of Weigeledangxiong and Halong Glaciers have been changed under the climate change since 1990, represented by the decreased surge extents and speeds. Meanwhile, the large area of ice avalanches on the steep back wall of several glaciers caused by climate warming may increase the instability of those glaciers. The warming climate may also cause the declined stability of Maqen Kangri Icecap, which may in turn cause some changes in the surges and collapses of its outlet glaciers like Xiaomagou Glacier and Weigeledangxiong Glacier.

Key words: Anyemaqen Mountain, glacier surge, glacier collapse disaster, concentrated distribution

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6