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冰川冻土 ›› 2023, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (4): 1254-1265.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2023.0096

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    

东昆仑木孜塔格峰地区冰湖演变与冰川物质亏损

车彦军1,2,4(), 陈丽花1,2, 谷来磊3, 张明军3,4(), 曹昀2, 吴佳康2, 赖彦怡1   

  1. 1.宜春学院 地理科学系,江西 宜春 336000
    2.江西师范大学 地理与环境学院,江西 南昌 330022
    3.西北师范大学 地理与环境科学学院,甘肃 兰州 730070
    4.甘肃省绿洲资源环境与可持续发展重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2023-02-18 修回日期:2023-05-25 出版日期:2023-08-31 发布日期:2023-09-26
  • 通讯作者: 张明军 E-mail:che_yanjun@126.com;mjzhang2004@163.com
  • 作者简介:车彦军,讲师(内聘副教授),主要从事冰川水文过程与气候变化研究. E-mail: che_yanjun@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    第三次新疆综合科学考察项目(2021xjkk0101);国家自然科学基金项目(42101135);江西省自然科学基金项目(20232BAB203060);绿洲资源环境与可持续发展甘肃省重点实验室基金项目(GORS202103)

Evolution of glacial lakes and glacier mass loss in Ulugh Muztagh area of eastern Kunlun Mountains

Yanjun CHE1,2,4(), Lihua CHEN1,2, Lailei GU3, Mingjun ZHANG3,4(), Yun CAO2, Jiakang WU2, Yanyi LAI1   

  1. 1.Department of Geographical Science,Yichun University,Yichun 336000,Jiangxi,China
    2.School of Geography and Environment,Jiangxi Normal University,Nanchang 330022,China
    3.College of Geography and Environmental Science,Northwest Normal University,Lanzhou 730070,China
    4.Key Laboratory of Resource Environment and Sustainable Development of Oasis,Gansu Province,Lanzhou 730070,China
  • Received:2023-02-18 Revised:2023-05-25 Online:2023-08-31 Published:2023-09-26
  • Contact: Mingjun ZHANG E-mail:che_yanjun@126.com;mjzhang2004@163.com

摘要:

冰湖接触型冰川的“湖-冰”相互作用显著,且共同作用于高山区水循环过程,在山区涵养水源、调节径流、维护生态多样性等方面发挥重要作用。本文基于Landsat遥感影像和ERA5-Land再分析资料,对东昆仑木孜塔格峰冰川区冰湖演变、冰川物质平衡进行了探讨。结果表明,木孜塔格峰冰川区冰湖主要分布于海拔5 275~5 400 m,多为冰川阻塞湖。1990—2020年分布有冰湖16个,其中,冰川5Y624E0022和5Y624F0020阻塞形成的两个冰湖分别发生3次和2次冰湖溃决事件。两湖均为周期性溃决冰湖,前者于1999年和2001年发生较大规模冰湖溃决,溃决前面积分别为(0.250±0.044) km2、(0.500±0.097) km2,溃决水量分别为(0.014±0.003) km3、(0.026±0.006) km3;后者为2000年形成的冰川阻塞湖,溃决前面积为(0.110±0.030) km2,同年溃决,水量为(0.006±0.002) km3。期间,冰湖数量有所增加,面积和储量均有减少趋势。然而,2000—2010年冰川累积物质平衡呈增加趋势,2010—2020年呈减少趋势,且有冰湖接触型冰川年均物质平衡呈显著的减小趋势(-0.024 m w.e.·a-1),略大于无冰湖接触型冰川的减小趋势(-0.022 m w.e.·a-1)。此外,冰川热融侵蚀和冰崩作用使得冰鳞川和木孜塔格冰湖与冰川相连位置分别加速退缩了0.65 km、0.28 km。总之,该地区冰湖正处于数量增加、冰湖空间扩张阶段,其加速了母冰川的物质亏损。

关键词: 冰湖, 冰川物质平衡, 木孜塔格峰, 东昆仑

Abstract:

The “lake-glacier” interaction of glacial lake contacted glaciers is significant, and they act together on the water cycle process in alpine areas, playing an important role in water conservation, runoff regulation, and ecological diversity maintenance in mountainous areas. Based on Landsat remote sensing images and ERA5-Land reanalysis data, this paper discusses the evolution of glacial lakes and the mass balance of glaciers in the glacier area of Ulugh Muztagh in eastern Kunlun Mountains. The results show that the glacial lakes in the glacier area of Ulugh Muztagh are mainly distributed at an altitude of 5 275~5 400 m a.s.l., and they are mainly glacial blocking lakes. From 1990 to 2020, there were 16 glacial lakes. Among them, the two glacial lakes formed by the blocked lakes of glaciers 5Y624E0022 and 5Y624F0020, which had three and two events of the glacial lake outburst, respectively. Both lakes are periodically collapsing glacial lakes. The former had large-scale glacial lake bursts in 1999 and 2001, respectively. The former had large-scale glacial lake bursts in 1999 and 2001, with an area of (0.250±0.044) km2 and (0.500±0.097) km2 before glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF), corresponding to a volume of (0.014±0.003) km3 and (0.026±0.006) km3, respectively; the latter is a glacier-blocked lake [(0.110±0.030) km2] formed in 2000, which burst in that year with a water volume of (0.006±0.002) km3. During this period, the number of glacial lakes has increased, while the area and reserves have decreased. However, the accumulative mass balance of glaciers showed an increasing trend from 2000 to 2010, and a decreasing trend from 2010 to 2020, and the average annual mass balance of glacial lake contacted glaciers showed a significant decreasing trend (-0.024 m w.e.·a-1) slightly greater than that non-glacial lake contacted glaciers (-0.022 m w.e.·a-1). In addition, due to glacial thermal erosion and glacier avalanche, the locations where Binglinchuan and Muztag glacial lakes are connected to the glacier have accelerated their retreat by 0.65 km and 0.28 km, respectively. In short, the number of glacial lakes in this region is increasing and the space of glacial lakes is expanding, which accelerates the material loss of parent glaciers.

Key words: glacial lake, glacier mass balance, Ulugh Muztagh, eastern Kunlun Mountains

中图分类号: 

  • P343.3