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冰川冻土 ›› 1981, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (2): 14-31.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国西北山区河流类型

杨针娘   

  1. 中国科学院兰州冰川冻土研究所
  • 收稿日期:1980-04-19 出版日期:1982-05-25 发布日期:2012-04-26

MOUNTAIN STREAM TYPES IN NORTHWEST CHINA

Yang Zhenniang   

  1. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Cryopedology, Academia Sinica
  • Received:1980-04-19 Online:1982-05-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 我国西北山区河流发源于祁连山、阿尔泰山、天山、昆仑山、喀喇昆仑山等山脉。这些山系冰川分布很广,据初步统计全国冰川总面积约为5.7×104平方公里,其中分布于祁连山有1,973平方公里,天山9,548.5平方公里,阿尔泰山271平方公里,昆仑山11,639.0平方公里,喀喇昆仑山3,265平方公里,帕米尔2,257.6平方公里,以上占全国冰川总面积5100。因此,冰雪融水是我国西部山区河流重要的补给来源之一。此外,山区河流垂直地带性是河流具有多种水源补给的条件,这种不同水源对河流基本水文特征有很大影响,本文即论述在这种自然条件下我国西北山区五种河流类型的水文特征。

Abstract: The mountain streams in the northwestern part of China are supplied by various water sources. According to both their sources and the basic hydrogical characteristics, they may be divided into five types of streams, namely the type of ice and snow meltwater, the type of rain water and ice and snow meltwater, the type of underground water and ice and snow meltwater, the type of snow meltwater, and the type of rain water. In the type of ice and snow meltwater, the ice and snow meltwater is the main supply and the discharge is extremely steady. In the type of rainwater and ice and snow meltwater,the rain water maybe the main supply mixed with ice and snow meltwater and the discharge is quite stable, most streams in the Northwest China belong to this type. The type of underground water and ice and snow meltwater is mainly supplied by under ground water with other mixed sources and the change of the discharge is comparatively big. Both the types of snow meltwater and of the rainfall belong to streams of precipitation supply. However, at present the former is mainly supplied by snow meltwater in spring and the stream discharge is affected directly by precipitation and has the greatest change.