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冰川冻土 ›› 1981, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (3): 23-28.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

冰川活动层温度状况的传热学分析——以祁连山羊龙河5号冰川为例

任贾文, 黄茂桓   

  1. 中国科学院兰州冰川冻土研究所
  • 收稿日期:1980-03-03 出版日期:1982-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26

HEAT TRANSFER WITHIN GLACIAL ACTIVE LAYER——Taking No.5 Glacier, Yanglong River,Qilian Shan, as an Example

Ren Jiawen, Huang Maohuan   

  1. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Cryopcdology, Academia Sinica
  • Received:1980-03-03 Online:1982-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 一般认为,冰川表面15—20米一层受外界气候因素的影响,存在以年为周期的温度波动,称为活动层。活动层的温度状况直接反映冰川存在的气候条件,同时又是研究冰川内部温度状况的入门。活动层底部的温度(年变动幅度在0.2℃以内)可以作为表达冰川发育的水热条件和冰川物理性质的一个指标。这一层活跃着频繁的热交换过程。在表层以辐射、传导、对流和相变的方式同外界进行热交换。在内部除传导外,融化、融水渗浸和再冻结作用活跃,有时起主导作用。表面的升(积累)降(消融、沉陷)、冰体运动和地热流的存在对活动层的温度状况也有一定的影响。

Abstract: The temperature data at 3 altitudes of active layer in No.5 Glacier, Yanglong River, Qilian Shan, measured in the summer of 1977 are analysed to see the situation of heat transfer. It is verified that the principal heat exchange in active layer, over 3 m below surface, is conduction. A modified equation for temperature regime is drawn. The relationship between mean ice temperature and depth is found to be linear. The vertical temperature gradient in this layer is greater than that needed for geothermal flux to travel through it by a factor of 3.5-8. Hereby most glaciers in Qilian Shan, several ten metres in thickness, may partly reach melting piont at their base. Perhaps the relatively great vertical temperature gradient is a feature of continental type glaciers in China. The temperature regime in infiltration zone, being different from that in other zones below it, is characterized by a high inner temperature with a small inner amplitude on the one hand, a low surface temperature with a great surface amplitude on the other.