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冰川冻土 ›› 1983, Vol. 5 ›› Issue (3): 47-58.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

天山博格达峰北坡气象条件与冰川物质平衡的关系

上田丰1, 仇家琪2, 安成哲三3   

  1. 1. 日本山口大学教育学部;
    2. 中国科学院新疆地理研究所;
    3. 日本筑波大学地球科学系
  • 出版日期:1984-11-25 发布日期:2012-04-26

Relations Between Meteorological Conditions and Mass Balance of a Glacier on the North Slope of Mt. Bogda, Tian Shan

Yutaka Ageta1, Qiu Jiaqi2, Tetsuzo Yasunari3   

  1. 1. Faculty of Education. Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753, Japan;
    2. Xinjiang institute of Geography, Academia Sinica, Urumqi China;
    3. Institute of Geoscience. the University of Tsukuba. Ibaraki 305, Japan
  • Online:1984-11-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 在东天山冰川上,积累和消融是在暖季同时发生的,故分别对积累量和消融量的测量是困难的。为了单独估算积累和消融,夏天我们在D-5冰川附近进行了气象观测。与地面气温相比较,发现冰川上气温比较低,且具有较小的日变化幅度。由高空天气图的分析可知,降水的主要原因可归结于来自极地的冷槽。固态降水发生的频数(S:%)和地面气温(T:℃)之间的关系对冰川积累很重要,这种关系(S=25T+108)可由观测结果得到。消融(a:厘米水层)和日积温(∑T:日平均气温之和,℃·日)也可由关系式(a=1.5∑T)得到。通过这些关系的应用,我们可以估算冰川上积累、消融和物质平衡。除冰川为具有高反射率的新雪所覆盖面外,计算的物质平衡和观测结果很吻合,气象条件和物质平衡与尼伯尔喜马拉雅山冰川进行了简要的比较。

Abstract: On glaciers in the eastern Tianshan Mountains, separate measurements of amounts of accumulation and abation are difficult, since accumulation and ablation occur simultaneously in the warm season. To estimate accumulation and ablation independently, meteorological observations around Glacier D-5 were made in summer. In comparison with air temperature on the ground, much lowering of that and smaller diurnal range were seen on the glacier. From the analysis of upper weather charts, the main cause of precipitation is attributed to the cold trough from the polar region. Since the relation between the probability of occurrence of solid precipitation (S:%) and surface air temperature (T: C) is important for glacier accumulation, the relation of [S=-25T-108 ] is obtained from the observational results. The relation between ablation (a : cm water) and the degree day index (∑T: sum of daily mean air temperature. (.day) is also obtained as [a = 1.5∑T]. By the use of these relations, accumulation, ablation and balance on the glacier are estimated. The agreement between the calculated balance and observational results is fairly good except when the glacier is covered by new snow with high albedo Meteorological conditions and mass balance arc compared briefly with those in the Nepal Himalaya.