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冰川冻土 ›› 2000, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 193-199.

• 研究论文 •    下一篇

祁连山中部地区40a来气候变化及其对径流的影响

丁永建, 叶佰生, 刘时银   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2000-03-14 修回日期:2000-04-30 出版日期:2000-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基金项目"西北干旱区内陆河流域水资源形成与转化的基础研究"(49731003)."冰冻圈动态变化基础研究(三期)";中国科学院"九五"重大项目(KZ951-B1-212);中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所创新项目(210006)资助.

Impact of Climate Change on the Alpine Streamflow During the Past 40 a in the Middle Part of the Qilian Mountains, Northwestern China

DING Yong-jian, YE Bai-sheng, LIU Shi-yin   

  1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2000-03-14 Revised:2000-04-30 Online:2000-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 过去40a中,我国西北内陆流域山区气候已发生了显著变化.文章主要对祁连山中部的黑河和讨赖河流域山区气候变化进行了分析,并根据气候变化特点讨论了气候要素与年径流变化的关系.结果显示,山区径流对气候变化具有十分敏感的反应.不同流域、径流对不同气候要素具有不同的依赖性,这主要与冰川、积雪和冻土等寒区水文要素的分布和规模有关.黑河流域径流呈增加之势,主要与降水量增加密切相关;而讨赖河径流则表现为减少的趋势,主要由气温的上升所致.同时还对不同季节气候变化对径流的贡献进行了讨论.

关键词: 年径流, 气候变化影响, 祁连山, 寒区

Abstract: Visible climate change in the interior catchment of arid northwest China during the past 40 years occurred. By analyzing the climate change in the Heihe River and the Taolaihe River catchments of the Qilian Mountains. the characteristics of climate change, the relation between climatic elements and annual streamflow in the catchments were discussed in this paper. Changes in alpine precipitation and temperature were seasonally different in the past 40 years. Precipitation in summer and winter appeared to increase and that in spring and autumn tended to decrease. Annual precipitation presented totally an increasing tendency. Temperature in autumn and winter tended to increase, especially in winter. Spring temperature decreased slightly and summer temperature was relatively steady. Annual temperature showed a slow increasing tendency. Summer precipitation increased 14.84 mm per decade though its change rate was much less than that of winter precipitation, that increased with a speed of 1.2% per year. The rising of winter temperature rate, 0.352 K per ten years, was marked. Though seasonal precipitation and temperature varied by a way of some increase and some decrease in the Qilian Mountains in the past 40 years, annual precipitation and temperature tended to increase as a whole. The streamflow in each season appeared to be an increasing tendency, with higher rate in spring and summer. Especially, spring streamflow appeared to have the highest increasing rate, 0.267×108 m3 per decade, equivalent to an increasing spring streamflow volume of 1.2% per year. The marked increase in spring streamflow was probably associated with increasing winter precipitation. Influence of spring precipitation on streamflow closely related to spring temperature. Increasing summer streamflow directly associated to summer precipitation. However, increasing rate of summer streamflow was less than that of summer precipitation in comparison to the change of seasonal streamflow and precipitation, which most likely related to a decrease of spring precipitation, resulting in a reduce of snow cover and an influence on the supplement to summer streamflow. Models of response of the streamflow to climate change for the Heihe River and the Taolaihe River were set up. It is revealed that most important factor influencing streamflow in the Heihe River is precipita-tion. Increasing precipitation made annual flow increase to 16% as compared with the average annual flow, but rising temperature made annual flow reduce to 3.6%. Average increase of streamflow is about 12.4%, equivalent to a water amount of 1.9×108m3. Climatic effect on streamflow in the Taolaihe River is complicated. The tendency of streamflow change in the Taolaihe River is decreasing. opposite to that in the Heihe River. An important cause on decreasing streamflow is rising temperature. Reducing streamflow by rising temperature is 10.4% of the average. Though rising temperature in spring and summer resulted in positive contribution to streamflow due to the increase of snowmelt, glacier ablation and annual precipitation. the forceful negative effect of rising temperature on streamflow is not able to eliminate. The results calculated from the two selected alpine adjacent catchments indicate that under varied hydrological conditions and different tendencies of seasonal climate change, dissimilar change tendency in streamflow will appear: increase in the Heihe River and decrease in the Taolaihe River.

Key words: annual streamflow, impact of climate change, Qilian Mountains, cold regions

中图分类号: 

  • P333.1