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冰川冻土 ›› 2001, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 28-33.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

气候变化对中国西北地区山区融雪径流的影响

王建, 沈永平, 鲁安新, 王丽红, 史正涛   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2000-04-27 修回日期:2000-08-04 出版日期:2001-02-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(49871021);中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新项目(CACX210018);中国科学院重大项目(KZ951-B1-212)资助

Impact of Climate Change on Snowmelt Runoff in the Mountainous Regions of Northwest China

WANG Jian, SHEN Yong-ping, LU An-xin, WANG Li-hong, SHI Zheng-tao   

  1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2000-04-27 Revised:2000-08-04 Online:2001-02-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 选择祁连山黑河流域作为中国西北地区山区积雪流域的典型代表,分析了1956-1995年40a以来气候、积雪变化的状况和特点以及春季融雪径流的波动趋势.利用融雪径流模型(Snowmelt Run-off Model-SRM)和卫星遥感数据模拟气温上升框架下的融雪径流变化情势.结果表明:中国西北地区山区的气候变化主要表现在年平均气温的缓慢上升而降水基本平稳,年内气温的上升幅度以1~2月份比较强烈,而3~6月融雪期的气温并没有大的变化,导致融雪期在时间尺度上的扩大,融雪径流呈慢增加趋势且受径流周期变化控制,融雪径流峰值在时间上前移.

关键词: 气候变化, 融雪径流, 径流变化情势

Abstract: Snow cover is an indicator for global warming. Climate change influences the distribution of glaciers and snow. Thus, air temperature rising results in changing of distribution of seasonal snow cover and regime of snowmelt runoff in Northwest China. Heihe Basin is a typical snow cover region with an area of 10 009 km2 in Northwest China, where snowmelt runoff is the main supply for water resources. It is found that an impact of climate change on snowmelt runoff in mountainous regions is clear in the basin. So in this paper, the Heihe Basin was sampled to analysis the impact in mountainous regions of Northwest China. The impact of snowmelt runoff was simulated by using Snowmelt Runoff Model——SRM and satellite remote sensing data under air temperature rising. By analyzing the climatic and hydrological data sets derived from 46 observation stations for 40 years(1956—1995), an air temperature rising trend since 1956 is seen, together with a stable precipitation. The annual mean air temperature has increased about 0.7~1.4 ℃. Temperature mainly rises in January and February, but less rises in the spring. Meanwhile, in the test area, variation in rainfall and snowfall has a small effect. When air temperature increasing in winter is the main variation of climate change, snowfall will increase correspondingly. Based on statistics, snowfall increasing due to air temperature rising reaches 7%~10%. Snowmelt runoff regime changes with climate changing temporally and spatially. The curves of different coefficient of discharge show a change of monthly mean discharge contribution from the middle ten days of April to the middle ten days of October. The snowmelt period stretches with the shifted advance 10 days. While the discharge increases, the peak of runoff also advances to May.

Key words: snowmelt runoff, climate change, air temperature rising, runoff variation

中图分类号: 

  • P467